Skill theory

The work of our mentor, Dr. Kurt W. Fischer

 

Dr. Fischer (Harvard Gradutate School of Education. emeritus) was the Charles Bigelow Professor of Education at Harvard Graduate School of Education, where he was the director of the Mind, Brain, and Education program. He greatly influenced our work at Lectica. Dr. Fischer's dynamic skill theory is a comprehensive theory of human development that not only describes mechanisms of development and a developmentsl sequence, but also considers the impact of contextual and interpersonal factors on learning (Fischer, 1980; Fischer & Bidell, 2006). At the heart of the theory is the skill, which is the capacity to act in a certain way in a certain context. Skills include emotions, motivation, meaning, and action (Mascolo & Fischer, 2010, p. 5). Skills develop through levels of increasing complexity, differentiation, and integration, within a dynamic system that includes self, other, and environment.

There are many ways in which skill theory has impacted our work. Here, we describe our "top 5"—learning and development involve the whole braincognition develops through levels and tierscontext matterslearning is slow and variable, and support is essential.

Learning and development involve the whole brain

Mental development involves the entire brain and is impossible without social interaction. Even a concept like the physics of energy is best learned in an environment that engages learners emotionally, motivationally, kinesthetically, and reflectively.  

Cognition develops through levels and tiers 

In 1980, Dr. Fischer introduced the dynamic skill scale. It is portrayed in the figure on the right. According to Dr. Fischer, development involves 3 major restructurings of thought, each of which ushers in a new kind of concept. The first restructuring occurs when the sensorimotor skills of infancy are transformed to emerge as the concrete concepts of early childhood, which Fischer calls representations (R in the figure). In pre-adolescence, systems of representational systems become the new concepts of the abstract tier (A in the figure). And finally, in adulthood, in a small percentage of the population, systems of abstract systems become the concepts of the principled tier (P in the figure). The new concepts of each tier are used in increasingly complex ways as people move through the tier. So, for example, in the abstract tier, there are single abstractions, abstract mappings, and abstract systems. Single concepts, mappings, and systems characterize every tier. As people develop along this scale, their thinking become increasingly abstract, complex, and integrated. 

At DiscoTest, we use Dr. Fischer's skill scale as the theoretical underpinning for our Lectical® Levels. We chose his model, because we were able translate its clear structures into scoring rules that produce accurate and reliable developmental scores. We call this set of scoring rules the Lectical® Assessment System (LAS). It's the cornerstone of our assessment system. Without the LAS—our learning ruler—Lectical Assessments would have been unimaginable. 

Context matters

Skills develop over time by growing increasingly complex. But, importantly, they do not develop in a vacuum. Dr. Fischer's research has demonstrated that skills develop in contexts. Contexts include (1) the external world—the environment or setting where the skill is being carried out; (2) the internal world—including a range of emotional and biological states; and (3) the interpersonal world—other people and the levels of support, challenge, or stress that they provide. 

Because skills are constructed in specific contexts, they don't typically transfer well from one context to another. For example, the fact that a student understands the mechanics of calculating a ratio well enough to do well on a typical math test, does not imply that she will be able to apply the skill in real life. In fact, it does not even imply that she will recognize a situation in which it should be applied. This is why students need to learn and practice skills in contexts that are similar to the ones they will encounter in life, and it's one of the reasons why DiscoTests require students to address "real world" problems.

Learning is slow and variable

Skills are constructed over time, and as Dr. Fischer's research has shown, variability in skill performance is normal. Development is not like climbing a ladder, where each step up equates to the perfect achievement of a new set of skills. Instead, development is like a spider's web, with growth in change through many pathways at once. Different skills can be at different levels of complexity at the same time. There can be differences across domains, where (for example) math skills might run ahead of social studies skills. Or there can be differences within domains, where multiplication skills might run ahead Developmental webof division skills. There is also variability within a single skill. Students may demonstrate a skill in one context, and fail to do so in another. A period of building skill followed by regression is also normal. When students are building a new skill or concept, they are likely to "forget" what they've learned a few times before the new skill can be taken for granted. 

Because all DiscoTests are calibrated to the skill scale (a.k.a. the Lectical® scale), DiscoTest report cards reveal much of the variability Fischer and his colleagues uncovered. For example, in the DiscoTest Report Card shown below, it's easy to see that Marilyn developed her social studies skills more slowly than she developed her physical science skills.  (Each circle represents a testing event, the x axis represents school years, and the y axis represents the skill scale.) Maralyn's social studies learning trajectory is also more uneven than her physical science learning trajectory, with a couple of unusual drops in grades 8 and 10. Interestingly, Marilyn did not find social studies very interesting until high school. She also disliked her 8th grade social studies teacher and was ill when she took her first 10th grade social studies DiscoTest. Finally, we suspect that Marilyn's rate of growth in both subjects increased dramatically in grade 11, when she found out that her parents could afford to pay for college. 

Report card

Support is essential

Dr. Fischer and his colleagues have repeatedly shown that learning takes time, practice, and support. Learners can generally construct a new skill with appropriate support faster than they can on their own. Support can include things like help from another person, a move to a different context, or a shift to a better structured or more familiar problem. Fischer calls the level at which people perform without support their functional level, and the level at which people can perform with appropriate support their optimal level. 

We think of appropriate support as having two components—a realistic goal and the right amount of assistance. In other words, it hits the learning "edge" or "sweet spot", providing just the right amount of challenge and and assistance to to support a specific learner.

Lectical Assessments help educators and learners identify how much and what kind of support is required by diagnosing test-takers' current level of skill, showing how it relates to learning targets, making suggestions about what the individual is most likely to benefit from learning next, and providing learning activities that are in their sweet spot.


Dr. Fischer's publications

Fischer, K.W. (1967). The effect of degree and type of training upon extinction of a response chain in pigeons. Psychonomic Science, 9, 402-404.

Fischer, K.W., & Fantino, E. (1968). The dissociation of discriminative and conditioned reinforcing functions of stimuli with changes in deprivation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11, 703-710.

Fischer, K.W. (1970). The structure and development of sensory-motor actions. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, Department of Social Relations, August, 1970.

Leventhal, H., & Fischer, K.W. (1970). What reinforces in a social-reinforcement situation? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 14, 83-94.

Fischer, K.W., & A. Lazerson (Eds.). (1972). Psychology today: An introduction (2nd ed.). Del Mar, California: CRM Books, Inc. Author or coauthor of seven chapters:

Chapter 2. Animal Behavior and Instinct Chapter 3. Conditioning and Learning Chapter 4. The Organization of Behavior Chapter 5. Development of Intelligence

Chapter 6. Development of Higher-Order Intelligence Chapter 14. Perception

Chapter 15. Consciousness and Awareness

Fischer, K.W. (1972). Structuralism for psychologists: A review of An introduction to structuralism (Basic Books, 1970), by Michael Lane. Contemporary Psychology, 17, 329-331.

Fischer, K.W. (1974). Cognitive development as problem solving: The meaning of decalage in seriation tasks. Proceedings: Fifth Annual Inter-disciplinary Conference on Structural Learning (pp. 25-31). Office of Naval Research Technical Report.

Fischer, K.W., et al. (resource contributors) (1974). Understanding psychology. Del Mar, California: CRM Books. (This is an adaptation of Psychology today: An introduction, 2nd ed., for junior colleges and high schools.)

Fischer, K.W., Shaver, P., & Lazerson, A. (Eds.) (1975). Psychology today: An introduction (3rd ed.). Del Mar, California: CRM Books. Contributor to many chapters and author of six chapters.

Chapter 3. Species-specific behavior: Ethology Chapter 4. Conditioning and learning: Behaviorism

Chapter 6. Thinking and problem-solving: Cognitive psychology Chapter 8. The development of intelligence: Piaget's theory Chapter 11. Perception: Principles and processes

Chapter 13. Varieties of consciousness

Fischer, K.W., & Lazerson, A. (1976). The editors/writers speak. Teaching of Psychology, 3, 149.

Bertenthal, B.I., & Fischer, K.W. (1977). Theoretical derivation and scoring manual for "Development of self-recognition in infancy." Cognitive Development Laboratory Manual Number 2, University of Denver.

Fischer, K.W. (1977). Making ESP replicable: A review of Learning to do ESP by Charles Tart. Contemporary Psychology, 22, 893.

Fischer, K.W., Cohen, K., Gould, M., & Corbitt, P. (1977). Manual for scoring seriation tasks. Cognitive Development Laboratory Manual Number 1, University of Denver.

Fischer, K.W., & Lazerson, A. (1977). Managing a book versus plagiarizing it. Teaching of Psychology, 4, 198-199.

Fuller, G., Calhoun, J., Schulman, M., & Fischer, K.W. (1977). Understanding psychology (2nd ed.). New York: CRM/Random House. (An adaptation of Psychology today: An introduction, 3rd ed., for junior colleges and high schools.)

Watson, M., & Fischer, K.W. (1977). A developmental sequence of agent use in late infancy. Child Development, 48, 828-836.

Watson, M.W., & Fischer, K.W. (1977). Theoretical derivation and scoring manual for "A developmental sequence of agent use in late infancy." Cognitive Development Laboratory Manual Number 3, University of Denver.

Bertenthal, B.I., & Fischer, K.W. (1978). The development of self-recognition in infancy. Developmental Psychology, 14, 44-50. Translated to French and reprinted in P. Mounoud & A. Vinter (Eds.), La reconnaissance de son image chez l'enfant et l'animal. Neuchatel: Delachaux et Niestle, 1981.

Fischer, K.W. (1978). Structural explanation of developmental change. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 186-187.

Jackson, E., Campos, J.J., & Fischer, K.W. (1978). The question of decalage between object permanence and person permanence. Developmental Psychology, 14, 1-10.

Fischer, K.W. (1980). Learning and problem solving as the development of organized behavior. Journal of Structural Learning, 6, 253-267.

Fischer, K.W. (1980). Stages and individual differences in cognitive development. Psychology Update Series, No. 4.

Fischer, K.W. (1980). A theory of cognitive development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills. Psychological Review, 87, 477-531.

Fischer, K.W., & Corrigan, R. (1980). A skill approach to language development. In A.P. Reilly (Ed.), The communication game (pp. 58-64). New York: Johnson & Johnson Pediatric Round Table No. 4.

Watson, M.W., & Fischer, K.W. (1980). Development of social roles in elicited and spontaneous behavior. Developmental Psychology, 16, 483-494.

Bullock, D., & Fischer, K.W. (1981). The last straw for Piagetian stages? (Review of Beyond universals in cognitive development by D.H. Feldman). Contemporary Psychology, 26, 336-337.

Fischer, K.W. (Ed.) (1981). Cognitive development. New Directions for Child Development No. 12. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. This volume includes the following chapters:

Fischer, K.W. Analyzing change in the organization of behavior (editor's notes). Pp. vii-ix. Fischer, K.W., & Bullock, D. Patterns of data: Sequence, synchrony, and constraint in cognitive development. Pp. 1-20.

Fischer, K.W., & Watson, M.W. Explaining the Oedipus conflict. Pp. 79-92.

Fischer, K.W., & Corrigan, R. (1981). A skill approach to language development. In R. Stark (Ed.), Language behavior in infancy and early childhood (pp. 245-273). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Fischer, K.W., & Jennings, S. (1981). The emergence of representation in search. Developmental Review, 1, 18-30.

Hand, H.H., & Fischer, K.W. (1981). Manual for stories on the development of mean and nice social interaction. Cognitive Development Laboratory Manual Number 7, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado.

Pipp, S.L., & Fischer, K.W. (1981). Review of Intelligence and adaptation: An integration of psychoanalysis and Piagetian developmental psychology by Stanley I. Greenspan. American Journal of Education, 89, 452-456.

Watson, M.W., & Fischer, K.W. (1981). Theoretical derivation and scoring manual for "A developmental sequence of agent use in late infancy" and "Development of social roles in elicited and spontaneous behavior." Cognitive Development Laboratory Scoring Manuals 3 and 4 (combined), University of Denver.

Fischer, K.W. (1982). Human cognitive development in the first four years. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5, 282-283.

Fischer, K.W., & Canfield, R. (1982). Creativity as a developmental process. (Review of Darwin on man by H.E. Gruber). Contemporary Psychology, 27, 521-522.

Bertenthal, B.I., & Fischer, K.W. (1983). The development of representation in search: A social- cognitive analysis. Child Development, 54, 846-857.

Fischer, K.W. (1983). Illuminating the processes of moral development: A commentary. In A. Colby et al., A longitudinal study of moral judgment. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 48 (1, Serial No. 200), 97-107.

Fischer, K.W. (Ed.) (1983). Levels and transitions in cognitive development. New Directions for Child Development No. 21. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. This volume includes the following chapters:

Fischer, K.W. The search for developmental levels (editor's notes). Pp. 1-3. Fischer, K.W. Developmental levels as periods of discontinuity. Pp. 5-20.

Fischer, K.W., & Canfield, R.L. (1983). The interaction of person and environment in learning and cognitive development: A skill approach. Journal of Computer-based Instruction, 9 (May), 1- 10.

Fischer, K.W., & Pipp, S.L. (1983). Freudian thought in children and adults (Review of The structure of Freudian thought by M.H. Feffer). Contemporary Psychology, 28, 280-282.

Fischer, K.W., & Bullock, D. (1984). Cognitive development in middle childhood: Conclusions and new directions. In W.A. Collins (Ed.), Development during middle childhood: The years from six to twelve (pp. 70-146). Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences Press.

Fischer, K.W., Hand, H.H., & Russell, S. (1984). The development of abstractions in adolescence and adulthood. In M. Commons, F.A. Richards, and C. Armon (Eds.), Beyond formal operations (pp. 43-73). New York: Praeger.

Fischer, K.W., Hand, H.H., Watson, M.W., Van Parys, M., & Tucker, J. (1984). Putting the child into socialization: The development of social categories in preschool children. In L. Katz (Ed.), Current topics in early childhood education (vol. 5, pp. 27-72). Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex.

Fischer, K.W., & Lazerson, A. (1984). Human development from conception to adolescence. New York: Freeman.

Fischer, K.W., & Lazerson, A. (1984). Research: Brain spurts and Piagetian periods. Educational Leadership, 41 (5), 70.

Fischer, K.W., & Pipp, S.L. (1984). Development of the structures of unconscious thought. In K. Bowers & D. Meichenbaum (Eds.), The unconscious reconsidered (pp. 88-148). New York: Wiley.

Fischer, K.W., & Pipp, S.L. (1984). Processes of cognitive development: Optimal level and skill acquisition. In R.J. Steinberg (Ed.), Mechanisms of cognitive development (pp. 45-80). San Francisco: Freeman.

Fischer, K.W., Pipp, S.L., & Bullock, D. (1984). Detecting discontinuities in development: Method and measurement. In R. Emde & R. Harmon (Eds.), Continuities and discontinuities in development (pp. 95-121). New York: Plenum.

Hand, H.H., & Fischer, K.W. (1984). Scoring manual for stories testing the development of concepts of intention and responsibility in social interaction. Cognitive Development Laboratory Manual Number 5, University of Denver.

Corrigan, R., & Fischer, K.W. (1985). Controlling sources of variation in search tasks: A skill theory approach. In H. Wellman (Ed.), Children's searching: The development of search skill and spatial representation (pp. 287-318). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Fischer, K.W., & Silvern, L. (1985). Stages and individual differences in cognitive development. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 613-648.

Pipp, S.L., Shaver, P., Jennings, S., Lamborn, S., & Fischer, K.W. (1985). Adolescents' theories about the development of their relationships with parents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 991-1001.

Platt, C.B., & Fischer, K.W. (1985). Scoring manual for the development of communicative and linguistic skills of bilingual children. Cognitive Developmental Laboratory Manual, University of Denver.

Fischer, K.W., & Canfield, R.L. (1986). The ambiguity of stage and structure in behavior: Person and environment in the development of psychological structures. In I. Levin (Ed.), Stage and structure: Reopening the debate (pp. 246-267). Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.

Fischer, K.W., & Elmendorf, D. (1986). Becoming a different person: Transformations in personality and social behavior. In M. Perlmutter (Ed.), Minnesota symposium on child psychology (vol. 18, pp. 137-178). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Fischer, K.W., & Kenny, S.L. (1986). The environmental conditions for discontinuities in the development of abstractions. In R. Mines & K. Kitchener (Eds.), Adult cognitive development: Methods and models. New York: Praeger. Pp. 57-75.

Bullock, D., & Fischer, K.W. (1986). The equilibration of cognitive structures. (A review of Piaget's The equilibration of cognitive structures: The central problem of intellectual development). American Scientist, 74, 660.

Fischer, K.W. (1987). Relations between brain and cognitive development. Child Development, 58, 623-632.

Fischer, K.W., & Farrar, J. (1987). Generalizations about generalization: How a theory of skill development explains both generality and specificity. International Journal of Psychology, 22, 643-677.

Reprinted in A. Demetriou (Ed.) (1988). The neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development: Toward an integration. Amsterdam: North Holland.

Pipp, S.L., Fischer, K.W., & Jennings, S.L. (1987). The acquisition of self and mother knowledge in infancy. Developmental Psychology, 23, 86-96.

Fischer, K., Kenny, S., & Beals, D. (1988). Revised scoring manual for the development of concepts of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division from grade school to college. Cognitive Development Laboratory Manual Number 6, Harvard University.

Fischer, K.W., & Knight, C.C. (1988). Cognitive development in real children: Levels and variations. Teaching Thinking and Problem Solving, 1988, 10(3), 1-4.

Fischer, K.W., & Knight, C.C. (1988). Different paths to reading. (A report on our research). The Spencer Foundation Newsletter, 3(2), 1.

Lamborn, S.D., & Fischer, K.W. (1988). Optimal and functional levels in cognitive development: The individual's developmental range. Newsletter of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, No. 2 (Serial No. 14), 1-4.

Bidell, T.R., & Fischer, K.W. (1989). Commentary (Durability and variability in cognitive development). Human Development, 32, 363-368.

Fischer, K.W., & Hogan, A. (1989). The big picture for infant development: Levels and variations. In J. Lockman & N. Hazen (Eds.), Action in social context: Perspectives on early development. New York: Plenum. Pp. 275-305.

Fischer, K.W., & Lamborn, S. (1989). Mechanisms of variation in developmental levels: Cognitive and emotional transitions during adolescence. In A. de Ribaupierre (Ed.), Transition mechanisms in child development. New York: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 33-67.

Fischer, K.W., Shaver, P., & Carnochan, P. (1989). A skill approach to emotional development: From basic- to subordinate-category emotions. In W. Damon (Ed.), Child development today and tomorrow (pp. 107-136). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Kitchener, K.S., & Fischer, K.W. (1989). "Wicked" decision problems and reflective judgment. (A report on our research.) The Spencer Foundation Newsletter, 4 (3), 1.

Rose, S., & Fischer, K.W. (1989). Constructing task sequences: A structured approach to skill theory. Cognitive Development Laboratory Manual, Harvard University.

Fischer, K.W. (1990). From the President. Genetic Epistemologist, 18(2), 1.

Fischer, K.W., & Hencke, R. (1990). Mean and nice interaction scale: Adult/child. Cognitive Development Laboratory, Harvard University.

Fischer, K.W., Hencke, R., & Hand, H.H. (1990). Mean and nice interaction scale: Peers. Cognitive Development Laboratory, Harvard University.

Fischer, K.W., Kenny, S.L., & Pipp, S.L. (1990). How cognitive processes and environmental conditions organize discontinuities in the development of abstractions. In C.N. Alexander, E.J. Langer, & R.M. Oetzel (Eds.), Higher stages of development. New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 162-187.(Includes reprinted portions of "Processes of cognitive development: Optimal level and skill acquisition," 1984, and "The environmental conditions for discontinuities in the development of abstractions," 1986.)

Fischer, K.W., & Knight, C.C. (1990). Cognitive development in real children: Levels and variations. In B.Z. Presseisen (Ed.), Learning and thinking styles: Classroom interaction. Washington DC: National Education Association. Pp. 43-67.

Excerpts published in Teaching Thinking and Problem Solving, 1988, 10(3), 1-4. Reprinted in Readings in Educational Psychology. Needham Heights MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1993.

Fischer, K.W., Shaver, P., & Carnochan, P. (1990). How emotions develop and how they organize development. Cognition and Emotion, 4, 81-127.

Kitchener, K.S., & Fischer, K.W. (1990). A skill approach to the development of reflective thinking. In D. Kuhn (Ed.), Developmental perspectives on teaching and learning thinking skills. Contributions to Human Development, Vol. 21, pp. 48-62. Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger.

Fischer, K.W. (1991). Emotional splitting as an organizer of functional and dysfunctional development. Newsletter of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, 19, 4.

Fischer, K.W., & Bidell, T.R. (1991). Constraining nativist inferences about cognitive capacities. In S. Carey & R. Gelman (Eds.), The epigenesis of mind: Essays on biology and knowledge. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Pp. 199-235.

Fischer, K.W., & Roberts, R.J., Jr. (1991). Shape and color classification scale. Cognitive Development Laboratory, Harvard University.

Kennedy, B., & Fischer, K.W. (1991). Understanding self-understanding: Review of W. Damon & D. Hart, Self-understanding in childhood and adolescence. Contemporary Psychology, 36, 59.

Bidell, T.R., & Fischer, K.W. (1992). Beyond the stage debate: Action, structure, and variability in Piagetian theory and research. In R. Sternberg & C. Berg (Eds.), Intellectual development (pp. 100-140). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bidell, T.R., & Fischer, K.W. (1992). Cognitive development in educational contexts: Implications of skill theory. In A. Demetriou, M. Shayer, & A. Efklides (Eds.), Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development: Implications and applications for education (pp. 9-30). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Fischer, K.W., & Bidell, T. (1992). Ever younger ages: Constructive use of nativist findings about early development. Newsletter of the Society for Research in Child Development, Winter, pp. 1, 10-11, 14.

Fischer, K.W., & Bidell, T. (1992). The need for developmental analysis of infant preconcepts. Newsletter of the Society for Research in Child Development, Fall, pp. 3, 14.

Knight, C.C., & Fischer, K.W. (1992). Learning to read words: Individual differences in developmental sequences. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 13, 377-404.

Fischer, K.W., & Bidell, T. (1993). Beyond the stage debate: Keeping the constructor in constructivism. Newsletter of the Society for Research in Child Development, Fall, pp. 5, 11.

Fischer, K.W., Bullock, D., Rotenberg, E.J., & Raya, P. (1993). The dynamics of competence: How context contributes directly to skill. In R. Wozniak & K.W. Fischer (Eds.), Development in context: Acting and thinking in specific environments (pp. 93-117). JPS Series on Knowledge and Development. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Fischer, K.W., Knight, C.C., & Van Parys, M. (1993). Analyzing diversity in developmental pathways: Methods and concepts. In R. Case & W. Edelstein (Eds.), The new structuralism in cognitive development: Theory and research on individual pathways (pp. 33-56). Contributions to Human Development, vol. 23. Basel, Switzerland: S. Karger.

Fischer, K.W., & van Geert, P. (1993). Modeling and measuring growth and development: Excerpts from the Group Report. Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences: Annual Report 1993 (pp. 39-44). Palo Alto, CA.

Hencke, R., & Fischer, K.W. (1993). Are there general structures in cognitive development? Review of The mind's staircase: Exploring the conceptual underpinnings of children's thought and language. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 902-902.

Kitchener, K.S., Lynch, C.L., Fischer, K.W., & Wood, P.K. (1993). Developmental range of reflective judgment scores: The effects of contextual support and practice. Developmental Psychology, 29, 893-906.

Watson, M.W., & Fischer, K.W. (1993). Structural changes in children's understanding of family roles and divorce. In R.R. Cocking & K.A. Renninger (Eds.), The development and meaning of psychological distance (pp. 123-140). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Wozniak, R., & Fischer, K.W. (Eds.) (1993). Development in context: Acting and thinking in specific environments. JPS Series on Knowledge and Development. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Wozniak, R., & Fischer, K.W. Acknowledgements (pp. ix-x).

Wozniak, R., & Fischer, K.W. Development in context: An introduction (pp. xi-xvi).

Bidell, T.R., & Fischer, K.W. (1994). Developmental transitions in children's early on-line planning. In M. M. Haith, J. B. Benson, R. J. Roberts Jr., & B. F. Pennington (Ed.), The development of future-oriented processes (pp. 141-176). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bidell, T. R., & Fischer, K. W. (1994). Structure, function, and variability in cognitive development: The stage debate and beyond. Philosophica, 54, 43-87.

Calverley, R., Fischer, K.W., & Ayoub, C. (1994). Complex splitting of self-representations in sexually abused adolescent girls. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 195-213.

Dawson, G., & Fischer, K.W. (Eds.) (1994). Human behavior and the developing brain. New York: Guilford Press.

Dawson, G., & Fischer, K.W. Frontiers of brain-behavior development: An introduction. Pp. xiii- xxi

Fischer, K.W., & Ayoub, C. (1994). Affective splitting and dissociation in normal and maltreated children: Developmental pathways for self in relationships. In D. Cicchetti & S. Toth (Eds.), Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology Vol. 5: The self and its disorders (pp. 149-222). Rochester, N.Y.: University of Rochester Press.

Fischer, K.W., & Hencke, R. (1994). Stages in development. International Encyclopedia of Education (2nd ed., pp. 2677-2681). Pergamon Press.

Fischer, K.W., & Rose, S.P. (1994). Dynamic development of coordination of components in brain and behavior: A framework for theory and research. In G. Dawson & K.W. Fischer (Eds.). Human behavior and the developing brain (pp. 3-66). New York: Guilford Press.

Lamborn, S., Fischer, K.W., & Pipp, S.L. (1994). Constructive criticism and social lies: A developmental sequence for understanding honesty and kindness in social relationships. Developmental Psychology, 30, 495-508.

Fischer, K.W., & Rose, S.P. (1995). Concurrent cycles in the dynamic development of brain and behavior. Newsletter of the Society for Research in Child Development, Fall, pp. 3-4, 15-16.

Fischer, K. W., & Granott, N. (1995). Beyond one-dimensional change: Parallel, concurrent, socially distributed processes in learning and development. Human Development, 38, 302-314.

Fischer, K.W., & Tangney, J. (1995). Self-conscious emotions and the affect revolution: Framework and overview. In J. Tangney & K.W. Fischer (Eds.), Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride. New York: Guilford. Chapter 1, Pp. 3- 22.

Mascolo, M., & Fischer, K.W. (1995). Developmental transformations in appraisals for pride, shame, and guilt. In J. Tangney & K.W. Fischer (Eds.), Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride (pp. 64-113). New York: Guilford.

Tangney, J., & Fischer, K.W. (Eds.). (1995). Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride. New York: Guilford.

Benes, F., Kagan, J., & Fischer, K. W. (1996). Neuropsychological disorders of adult cognition. Film. Cambridge MA: Harvard Mind, Brain, & Behavior Initiative.

Fischer, K.W., & Ayoub, C. (1996). Analyzing development of working models of close relationships: Illustration with a case of vulnerability and violence. In G. Noam & K.W. Fischer (Eds.), Development and vulnerability in close relationships (pp. 173-199). JPS Series on Knowledge and Development. Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Fischer, K. W., & Hencke, R. W. (1996). Infants' construction of actions in context: Piaget's contribution to research on early development. Psychological Science, 7, 204-210.

Fischer, K. W., & Hencke, R. (1996). Stages in human development. In E. De Corte & F. E. Weinert (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Developmental and Instructional Psychology (pp. 117-121). New York: Elsevier Science Updated version of Fischer & Hencke (1994).

Fischer, K.W., & Rose, S.P. (1996). Dynamic growth cycles of brain and cognitive development. In R.W. Thatcher, G.R. Lyon, J. Rumsey, & N. Krasnegor, Developmental neuroimaging: Mapping the development of brain and behavior (pp. 263-279). New York: Academic Press

Noam, G. G., & Fischer, K. W. (Eds.) (1996). Development and vulnerability in close relationships. Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Noam, G.G., & Fischer, K.W. The foundational role of relationships in human development and vulnerability: Introduction (pp. Ix-xx).

Savoy, R., with Benes, F., Fischer, K. W., & Kagan, J. (1996). Functional magnetic resonance imaging: Taking pictures of the working brain. Film. Cambridge MA: Harvard Mind, Brain, & Behavior Initiative.

Bidell, T.R., & Fischer, K.W. (1997). Between nature and nurture: The role of human agency in the epigenesis of intelligence. In R. Sternberg & E. Grigorenko (Eds.), Intelligence: Heredity and environment (pp. 193-242). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Fischer, K. W., Ayoub, C. C., Noam, G. G., Singh, I., Maraganore, A., & Raya, P. (1997). Psychopathology as adaptive development along distinctive pathways. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 751-781.

Fischer, K. W., & Kennedy, B. (1997). Tools for analyzing the many shapes of development: The case of self-in-relationships in Korea. In E. Amsel & K. A. Renninger (Eds.), Change and development: Issues of theory, method, and application (pp. 117-152). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Mascolo, M.F., Pollack, R., & Fischer, K.W., (1997). Keeping the constructor in development: An epigenetic systems approach. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 10, 25-49. (Special issue: Frontiers of constructivism.)

Bernstein, J. H., Fischer, K. W., Kagan, J., Waber, D., & Wolf, M. (1998). Profiles associated with reading skills. Film. Cambridge MA: Harvard Mind, Brain, & Behavior Initiative.

Coch, D., & Fischer, K.W. (1998). Discontinuity and variability in relational complexity: Cognitive and brain development. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21, 834-835.

Fischer, K. W., & Bidell, T. R. (1998). Dynamic development of psychological structures in action and thought. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.) Handbook of child psychology. Vol 1: Theoretical models of human development (5th ed., pp. 467-561). New York: Wiley.

Fischer, K. W., & Rose, S. P. (1998). Growth cycles of brain and mind. Educational Leadership, 56(3), 56-60.

Fischer, K. W., Wang, L., Kennedy, B., & Cheng, C. (1998). Culture and biology in emotional development. In D. Sharma & K. W. Fischer (Ed.), Socioemotional development across cultures. New Directions for Child Development, 81, 21-43. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Mascolo, M. F., & Fischer, K. W. (1998). The development of self through the coordination of component systems. In M. Ferrari & R. Sternberg (Eds.), Development of self-awareness across the lifespan (pp. 332-384). New York: Guilford.

Parziale, J., & Fischer, K. W. (1998). The practical use of skill theory in classrooms. In R. J. Sternberg & W. M. Williams (Eds.), Intelligence, instruction, and assessment (pp. 95-110). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Rose, S. P., & Fischer, K. W. (1998). Models and rulers in dynamical development. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 16, 123-131.

Sharma, D., & Fischer, K.W. (Eds.) (1998). Socioemotional development across cultures (New Directions for Child Development, vol. 81). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sharma, D., & Fischer, K.W. Socioemotional development across cultures: Context, complexity, and pathways. Pp. 3-20.

Fischer, K. W., Wang, L., Kennedy, B., & Cheng, C. Culture and biology in emotional development. Pp. 21-43.

Fischer, K. W. (1999). Pathways of development of self-in-relationships: Foreword. In S. Harter (Ed.), The construction of self: A developmental perspective (pp. ix-xi). New York: Guilford.

Fischer, K. W., & Rose, S. P. (1999). Rulers, clocks, and nonlinear dynamics: Measurement and method in developmental research. In G. Savelsbergh, H. van der Maas, & P. van Geert (Eds.), Nonlinear developmental processes (pp. 197-212). Amsterdam: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Fischer, K. W., & Stewart, J. (1999). Into the middle of things: From dichotomies to grounded dynamic analysis of development: Commentary on Baillargeon & Smith. Developmental Science, 2, 150-151.

Fischer, K. W., & Stewart, J. (1999). Duncker's analysis of problem solving as microdevelopment. From Past to Future, 1(2), 45-50.

Mascolo, M. F., & Fischer, K. W. (1999). The development of representation as the coordination of component systems of action. In I. Sigel (Ed.), Theoretical perspectives on the concept of representation (pp. 231-256). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Mascolo, M. F., Fischer, K. W., & Neimeyer, R. (1999). The dynamic co-development of intentionality, self, and social relations. In J. B. Brandstädter & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Action and self-development: Theory and research through the lifespan (pp. 133-166). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Watson, M.W., Alfredson, T., Smith, K.W., & Fischer, K.W. (1999). The relation of family variables and temperament patterns to aggression in children. Newsletter of the Boston Institute for the Development of Infants and Parents, 18, 3-5.

Bidell, T. R., & Fischer, K. W. (2000). The role of cognitive structure in the development of dynamic control: A dynamic skills approach. In W. J. Perrig & A. Grob (Eds.), Control of human behavior, mental processes, and consciousness: Essays in honor of the 60th birthday of August Flammer (pp. 183-201). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Fischer, K.W. (2000) Fun: New recipe for reading. Interview by Robert Epstein. Psychology Today, 33(1), 26.

Fischer, K. W., & Connell, M. (2000). Using neuro-constructivist tools to understand developmental pathways to disorders: Commentary on Oliver et al. Developmental Science, 3, 24-26.

Fischer, K. W., & Paré-Blagoev, J. (2000). From individual differences to dynamic pathways of development. Child Development, 71, 849-852.

Fischer, K. W., Yan, Z., McGonigle, B., & Warnett, L. (2000). Learning and developing together: Dynamic construction of human and robot knowledge. In J. Weng & I. Stockman (Eds.), Workshop on Development and learning: Proceedings of an NSF/DARPA workshop (pp. 50-59). East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.

Fischer, K. W., & Rose, L.T. (2001). Webs of skill: How students learn. Educational Leadership, 59 (3), 6-12.

Fischer, K. W., & Watson, M. W. (2001). Die dynamische Entwicklung sozio-emotionaler Rollen und ihre Verzerrungen in Familien: Der Ödipuskonflikt [Dynamic development of socioemotional roles and distortions in families: The case of the Oedipus conflict]. In G. Röper, C. von Hagen, &

G. Noam (Eds.), Entwicklung und Risiko: Perspektiven einer Klinischen Entwicklungspsychologie [Risk and Development: Perspectives from Clinical Developmental Psychology] (pp. 86-116). Stuttgart: Verlag W.

Fischer, K. W., & Bidell, T. R. (2002). Lo sviluppo dinamico delle strutture psicologiche nell'azione e nel pensiero. In E. Frauenfelder & F. Santoianni (Eds.), Le scienze biodeducative. Naples: Liguori.

Fischer, K. W., & Dawson, T. L. (2002). A new kind of developmental science: Using models to integrate theory and research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 67(1, Serial No. 173), 156-167.

Fischer, K. W., & Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2002). Cognitive development and education: From dynamic general structure to specific learning and teaching. In E. Lagemann (Ed.), Traditions of scholarship in education. Chicago: Spencer Foundation.

Fischer, K. W., & Pruyne, E. (2002). Reflective thinking in adulthood: Development, variation, and consolidation. In J. Demick & C. Andreoletti (Eds.), Handbook of adult development (pp. 169-197). New York: Plenum.

Fischer, K. W., & Yan, Z. (2002). Darwin's construction of the theory of evolution: Microdevelopment of explanations of species' variation and change. In N. Granott & J. Parziale (Eds.), Microdevelopment (pp. 294-318). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Fischer, K. W., & Yan, Z. (2002). The development of dynamic skill theory. In R. Lickliter & D. Lewkowicz (Eds.), Conceptions of development: Lessons from the laboratory (pp.279-312). Hove, U.K.: Psychology Press.

Granott, N., Fischer, K. W., & Parziale, J. (2002). Bridging to the unknown: A fundamental mechanism in learning and problem-solving. In N. Granott & J. Parziale (Eds.), Microdevelopment (pp. 131-156). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Li, J., & Fischer, K. W. (2002). Shame, respect, and conflict in Chinese childrearing and relationships. Harvard Children's Initiative (http://www.gse.harvard.edu/~hci/hci/pub/ shame.pdf).

Mascolo, M. F., Fink, R., Li, J., & Fischer, K. W. (2002). Pathways to excellence: Value presuppositions in the development of academic and affective skills in educational contexts. In M. Ferrari (Ed.), The pursuit of excellence through education (pp. 113-146). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Mascolo, M. F. & Fischer, K. W. (2002). Beyond the conduit: Promoting reflective learning about human development [Review of D. Goldhaber’s, 2000, Theories of Human Development: Integrative Approaches]. Contemporary Psychology, 47, 563-566.

Yan, Z., & Fischer, K. W. (2002). Always under construction: Dynamic variations in adult cognitive development. Human Development, 45, 141-160.

Ayoub, C. C., Fischer, K. W., & O’Connor, Erin E. (2003). Analyzing development of working models for disrupted attachments: The case of family violence. Attachment and Human Development, 5, 97-119.

Fischer, K.W. (2003). The developing child. (Interview with A. Bucuvalas). HGSE News, http://gseweb.harvard.edu/news/features/fischer10012003.html. Reprinted In A. Nava (Ed.), Fundamentals of secondary education. Dubuque, Ia: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Fischer, K.W., & Bidell, T.R. (2003). Dynamic development of psychological structures in action and thought. In E. Frauenfelder & F. Santoianni (Eds.), Mind, learning, and knowledge in educational contexts: Research perspectives in bioeducational sciences (pp. 70-91). London: Cambridge Scholars Press. (Excerpted from Fischer & Bidell, 1998)

Fischer, K. W., & Connell, M. W. (2003). Two motivational systems that shape development: Epistemic and self-organizing. British Journal of Educational Psychology: Monograph Series II, 2, 103-123.

Fischer, K. W., & Kaplan, U. (2003). Piagetian theory: Development of conceptual structure. In Lynn Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Vol. 3, pp. 683-687). London: Nature Publishing Group/MacMillan.

Fischer, K. W., & Kaplan, U. (2003). Jean Piaget: Biography. In Lynn Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Vol. 3, pp. 679-682). London: Nature Publishing Group/MacMillan.

Fischer, K. W., Yan, Z., & Stewart, J. (2003). Adult cognitive development: Dynamics in the developmental web. In J. Valsiner & K. Connolly (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychology (pp. 491-516). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mascolo, M. F., & Fischer, K. W. (2003). Beyond the nature-nurture divide in development and evolution. [Review of Gilbert Gottlieb's Individual Development and Evolution]. Contemporary Psychology, 48, 842-847.

Mascolo, M. J., Fischer, K. W.,& Li, J. (2003). Dynamic development of component systems of emotions: Pride, shame, and guilt in China and the United States. In R. J. Davidson, K. Scherer, & H. H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective science (pp. 375-408). Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.

Schwartz, M.S., & Fischer, K.W. (2003). Building vs. borrowing: The challenge of actively constructing ideas in post-secondary education. Liberal Education, 89(3), 22-29.

Fischer, K..W. (2004). Myths and promises of the learning brain. Ed Magazine, June 2004. Reprinted In A. Nava (Ed.), Fundamentals of secondary education. Dubuque, Ia: McGraw-Hill, 2005 and elsewhere.

Fischer, K.W. (2004). Learning and the brain. HGSE News Interview. http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/features/fischer08012004.html. Reprinted In A. Nava (Ed.), Fundamentals of secondary education. Dubuque, Ia: McGraw-Hill, 2005 and elsewhere.

Karcher, M. J., & Fischer, K. W. (2004). A developmental sequence of skills in adolescents' intergroup understanding. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 259-282.

Li, J., & Fischer, K. W. (2004). Thought and affect in American and Chinese learners' beliefs about learning. In D. Dai & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development (pp. 385-418). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Li, J., Wang, L.,& Fischer, K.W. (2004). The organization of shame words in Chinese. Cognition & Emotion, 18, 767-797.

Watson, M. W., Fischer, K. W., Andreas, J. B., & Smith, K. (2004). Pathways to aggression in children and adolescents. Harvard Educational Review, 74, 404-430.

Yan, Z., & Fischer, K. W. (2004). How children and adults learn to use computers: A developmental approach. In D. Sharma (Ed.), New Directions for Child & Adolescent Development: Vol. 105. Human technogenesis: Cultural pathways through the information age (pp. 41-61). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Watson, M.W., Burdzovic Andreas, J., Fischer, K.W., & Smith, K.W. (2005). Pathways of risk factors leading to victimization and aggression in children and adolescents. In K. Kendall- Tackett & S. Giacomoni (Eds.), Victimization of children and youth: Patterns of abuse, response strategies (pp. 12.1-12.23). Kingston, N.J.: Civic Research Institute.

Bidell, T. R., & Fischer, K. W. (2005). Between nature and nurture: Human agency in the epigenesis of intelligence [revised version of Bidell & Fischer, 1996]. In I. V. Ravich-Shcherbo & M. Alfimova (Eds.), Psychogenetics: A Book of Readings [in Russian]. Moscow: Academia Educational and Publishing Center.

Dawson-Tunik, T.L., Commons, M., Wilson, M., & Fischer, K.W. (2005). The shape of development. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2, 163-195.

Dawson-Tunik, T. L., Fischer, K. W., & Stein, Z. (2005). Do stages belong at the center of developmental theory? A commentary on Piaget's stages. New Ideas in Psychology, 8(6), 255- 263.

Mascolo, M. F., & Fischer, K. W. (2005). The new constructivism: The dynamic development of psychological structures. In B. Hopkins, R. G. Barre, G. F. Michel, & P. Rochat, (Eds.). Cambridge encyclopedia of child development (pp. 49-63). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Schwartz, M. S., & Fischer, K. W. (2005). Building general knowledge and skill: Cognition and microdevelopment in science learning. In A. Demetriou & A. Raftopoulos (Eds.), Emergence and transformation in mind: Modeling and measuring cognitive change (pp. 157-185). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Ayoub, C. C., & Fischer, K. W. (2006). Developmental pathways and intersections among domains of development. In K. McCartney & D. Phillips (Eds.), Handbook of early child development (pp. 62-82). Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell.

Ayoub, C. C., Rogosh, F., Toth, S. L., O’Connor, E., Cicchetti, D., Rappolt-Schlichtmann, G., & Fischer, K. W. (2006). Cognitive and emotional differences in young maltreated children: A translational application of dynamic skill theory. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 670- 706.

Bidell, T.R., & Fischer, K.W. (2006). Between nature and nurture: Human agency in the epigenesis of intelligence. In M.V. Alfimova & I.V. Ravich-Shcherbo (Eds.), Psychogenetics. A book of readings (pp. 382-430). Moscow: Academia Publishing Center.

Dawson, T. L., & Fischer, K.W. (2006). Implications of assessments for learners. Measurement.

Dawson, T. L., Fischer, K. W., & Stein, Z. (2006). Reconsidering qualitative and quantitative research approaches: A cognitive developmental perspective. New Ideas in Psychology, 24, 229-239.

 
 

Fischer, K.W. (2006). President’s message. The.MBE.Pons, 1(1), 1.

Fischer, K. W., & Bidell, T. R. (2006). Dynamic development of action and thought. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology. Vol 1: Theoretical models of human development (6th ed., pp. 313-399 ). New York: Wiley.

Fischer, K. W., & Daley, S. (2006). Connecting cognitive science and neuroscience to education: Potentials and pitfalls in inferring executive processes. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Understanding executive function: Implications and opportunities for the classroom (pp. 55-72). New York: Guilford.

Fischer, K.W., & Fusaro, M. (2006). Building Mind, Brain, and Education. The.MBE.Pons, 1(2), 1.

Schwartz, M. S., & Fischer, K. W. (2006). Useful metaphors for tackling problems in teaching and learning. About Campus, 11(1), 2-9.

Coch, D., Dawson, G., & Fischer, K. W. (Eds.). (2007). Human behavior, learning, and the developing brain: Atypical development (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.

Coch, D., Dawson, G., & Fischer, K. W. Preface. Pp. xi-xvi.

Coch, D., Fischer, K. W., & Dawson, G. (Eds.). (2007). Human behavior, learning, and the developing brain: Normal development (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.

Coch, D., Fischer, K. W., & Dawson, G. Preface. Pp. xi-xvii.

Immordino-Yang, M. H., & Fischer, K. W. Dynamic development of hemispheric biases in three cases: Cognitive/hemispheric cycles, music, and hemispherectomy. Pp. 74-111.

Fischer, K. W. (2007). Mind, brain, and education (MBE). In OECD (Ed.), Understanding the brain: The birth of a learning science (p. 137). Paris, France: OECD.

Fischer, K. W., Bernstein, J. H., & Immordino-Yang, M. H. (Eds.) (2007). Mind, brain, and education in reading disorders. Cambridge U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Fischer, K. W., Immordino-Yang, M. H., & Waber, D. P. Toward a grounded synthesis of mind, brain, and education for reading disorders. Pp. 3-15.

Fischer, K. W., Rose, L. T., & Rose, S. P. Growth cycles of mind and brain: Analyzing developmental pathways of learning disorders. Pp. 101-132.

Fischer, K. W., Daniel, D., Immordino-Yang, M. H., Stern, E., Battro, A., & Koizumi, H. (2007). Why Mind, Brain, and Education? Why Now? Mind, Brain, and Education, 1(1), 1-2.

Fischer, K. W., & Fusaro, M. (2007). Using student interests to motivate learning. In R. P. Fink & J. Samuels (Eds.), Inspiring success: Reading interest and motivation in an age of high-stakes testing (pp. 62-74). Newark DE: International Reading Association.

Katzir, T., Immordino-Yang, M.H., & Fischer, K.W. (2007). Mind, brain, and education in the era of globalization. In M. Suárez-Orozco (Ed.), Global understandings: Learning and education in troubled times (pp. 85-103). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Li, J., & Fischer, K. W. (2007). Respect as a positive self-conscious emotion in European- Americans and Chinese. In J. L. Tracy, R. W. Robins, & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), The self- conscious emotions: Theory and research (pp. 224-242). New York: Guilford.

Mascolo, M. F., & Fischer, K. W. (2007). The co-development of self and socio-moral emotions during the toddler years. In C. A. Brownell & C. B. Kopp (Eds.), Socioemotional development in the toddler years: Transitions and transformations (pp. 66-99). New York: Guilford.

Rappolt-Schlichtman, G., Tenenbaum, H. R., Koepke, M. F., & Fischer, K. W. (2007). Transient and robust knowledge: Contextual support and the dynamics of children's reasoning about density. Mind, Brain, and Education, 1 (2), 98-108.

Schneps, M. H., Rose, L. T., & Fischer, K. W. (2007). Visual learning and the brain: Lessons from dyslexia. Mind, Brain, and Education, 1 (3), 127-137.

Thomson, J. M., & Fischer, K. W. (2007). Dynamic development and dynamic education. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 72(3), 150-156.

Battro, A.M., Fischer, K. W., & Léna, P. (Eds.) (2008). The educated brain. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Battro, A.M., Fischer, K.W., & Léna, P. Introduction: Mind, brain, and education in theory and practice. Pp. 3-19.

Fischer, K.W. Dynamic cycles of cognitive and brain development: Measuring growth in mind, brain, and education. Pp. 127-150.

Fischer, K. W., & Immordino-Yang, M. H. (2008). The fundamental importance of the brain and learning for education. In The Jossey-Bass reader on the brain and learning (pp. xvii-xi). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Fischer, K. W., & Rose, L. T. (2008). Netze von Fertigkeiten: Wie SchülerInnen lernen. Verhaltenstherapie & Verhaltensmedizin. (Translation by Franz Riffert of Webs of skill: How students learn, 2001.)

Hinton, C., & Fischer, K. W. (2008). Research schools: Grounding research in educational practice. Mind, Brain, and Education, 2(4),157-160.

Vallotton, C., & Fischer, K. W. (2008). Cognitive development. In M. M. Haith & J. B. Benson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of infant and early childhood development (pp. 286-298): Elsevier.

Fischer, K. W. (2009). Mind, brain, and education: Building a scientific groundwork for learning and teaching. Mind, Brain, and Education, 3, 2-15.

Fischer, K. W., & Daniel, D. (2009). Need for infrastructure to connect research with practice in education. Mind, Brain, and Education, 3, 1-2.

Fischer, K. W., & Lindsley, R. (2009). Theories of development: Cognitive theories. In Richard A. Shweder, T. Bidell, A. C. Dailey, S. D. Dixon, P. J. Miller & J. Modell (Eds.), The child: An encyclopedic companion (pp. 262-264). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fischer, K. W., Stein, Z., & Heikkinen, K. (2009). Narrow assessments misrepresent development and misguide policy. American Psychologist, 64, 595-600.

Fischer, K. W., Stewart, J., & Stein, Z. (2009). Process and skill: Analyzing dynamic structures of growth. In F. Riffert & H.-J. Sander (Eds.), Researching with Whitehead: System and adventure (pp. 327-367). Munich: Verlag Karl Alber.

Rappolt-Schlichtmann, G., J. B. Willett, et al. (2009). "Poverty, relationship conflict, and the regulation of cortisol in small and large group contexts at child care." Mind, Brain, and Education 3, 131-142.

Rose, L. T., & Fischer, K. W. (2009). Dynamic systems theory. In Richard A. Shweder, T. Bidell, A. C. Dailey, S. D. Dixon, P. J. Miller & J. Modell (Eds.), The child: An encyclopedic companion (pp. 264-265). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Rose, L. T., & Fischer, K. W. (2009). Dynamic development: A neo-Piagetian approach. In U. Mueller, J. I. M. Carpendale & L. Smith (Eds.), Cambridge companion to Piaget. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.

Smith, C. E., Fischer, K. W., & Watson, M. W. (2009). Toward a refined view of aggressive fantasy as a risk factor for aggression: Interaction effects involving cognitive and situational variables. Aggressive Behavior, 35, 1-11.

Vallotton, C., & Fischer, K. W. (2009). Cognitive development. In J. B. Benson & M. M. Haith (Eds.), Language, memory, and cognition in infancy and early childhood. Elsevier.

Van Geert, P., & Fischer, K. W. (2009). Dynamic systems and the quest for individual-based models of change and development. In J. P. Spencer, M. S. C. Thomas, & J. McClelland (Eds.), Toward a unified theory of development: Connectionism and dynamic systems theory re- considered (pp. 313-336). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Collins, P., M. Hogan, et al. (2010). Electroencephalographic coherence and learning: Distinct patterns of change during word learning and figure learning tasks. Mind, Brain, and Education, 4(4): 208-218.

Fischer, K. W., & Heikkinen, K. (2010). The future of educational neuroscience. In D. Sousa (Ed.), Educational neuroscience: Where we are now and where we’re going next (pp. 249- 269). Bloomington IN: Solution Tree Press.

Fischer, K. W., Goswami, U., Geake, J., & Panel on the Future of Educational Neuroscience (2010). The future of educational neuroscience. Mind, Brain, and Education, 4(2), 68-80.

Hinton, C., & Fischer, K. W. (2010). Learning from the developmental and biological perspective. In H. Dumont, D. Istance & F. Benavides (Eds.), The nature of learning: Using research to inspire practice. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Hinton, C. D., & Fischer, K. W. (2010). Research schools: Connecting research and practice at the Ross Schools. In M. Suàrez-Orozco & H. Gardner (Eds.), Educating the whole child for the whole world: The Ross Schools and the promise of education for the global era. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.

Immordino-Yang, M. H., & Fischer, K. W. (2010). Neuroscience bases of learning. In B. McGaw,

P. Peterson & E. Baker (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education (3rd ed., Vol. 5, pp. 310- 316). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Immordino-Yang, M. H., & Fischer, K. W. (2010). Brain development. In I. Weiner & E. Craighead (Eds.), Corsini encyclopedia of psychology (4th ed.). New York: Wiley.

Mascolo, M. F., & Fischer, K. W. (2010). The dynamic development of thinking, feeling, and acting over the lifespan. In R. M. Lerner & W. F. Overton (Eds.), Handbook of life-span development. Vol. 1: Biology, cognition, and methods across the lifespan (pp. 149-194). Hoboken NJ: Wiley.

Schwartz, M., & Fischer, K. W. (2010). Interviewing: An insider’s insight into learning. In M. Ferrari & L. Vuletic (Eds.), Developmental interplay of mind, brain, and education: Essays in honor of Robbie Case. New York: Springer.

Stein, Z., Dawson, T., & Fischer, K. W. (2010). Redesigning testing: Operationalizing the new science of learning. In M. S. Khine & I. M. Saleh (Eds.), New science of learning: Cognition, computers, and collaboration in education (pp.207-224) New York: Springer.

Stein, Z., & Fischer, K. W. (2010). Directions for Mind, Brain, and Education: Methods, models, and morality. Educational Philosophy and Theory.

Fischer, K. W., Dawson, T., & Schnepps, M. (2011). Plasticity in learning pathways: Assessments that capture and facilitate learning. In A. M. Battro, S. Dehaene & W. J. Singer (Eds.), Human neuroplasticity and education: Proceedings of the working group (pp. 100-117). Vatican City: Pontifical Academy of Sciences.

Stein, Z., della Chiesa, B., Hinton, C., & Fischer, K. W. (2011). Ethical issues in educational neuroscience: Raising children in a brave new world. In J. Illes & B. J. Sahakian (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of neuroethics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Worden, J. M., C. Hinton, & Fischer, K.W. (2011). "What does the brain have to do with learning?" Phi Delta Kappan, 92(8): 8-13.

Battro, A. M., & Fischer, K. W. (2012). Mind, Brain, and Education in the digital era. Mind, Brain, and Education, 6(1), 49-50.

Immordino-Yang, M. H., & Fischer, K. W. (2012). Neuroscience bases of learning. In V. G. Aukrust (Ed.), Learning and cognition in education. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Hinton, C., Fischer, K. W., & Glennon, C. (2012). Mind, Brain, and Education. In N. Hoffman, A. Steinberg, & R. Wolfe (Eds.), Students at the center: Teaching and learning in the era of the common core. Boston MA: Jobs for the Future.

Fischer, K.W. (2012). Award: Transforming Education through Neuroscience. 2011 Recipient: Helen Neville. Mind. Brain, and Education, 6(2).

Fischer, K.W., and van Geert, Paul (2013, in press). Dynamic development of action and thought. In P.C.M. Molenaar (Ed.), Handbook of relational developmental systems theory and methodology. State College, Penn State Press.

Fischer, K. W., & Mascolo, M. F. (2014, in press). Dynamic development of thinking, feeling, and acting from infancy through adolescence. In W. Damon, P. C. M. Molenaar, & W. F. Overton (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (7th ed.). New York: Wiley.

Fischer, K. W., van Geert, P., & Mascolo, M. F. (2014, in press). Dynamic development of psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti (Ed.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology. New York: Wiley.

Rose, S. P., Stewart, J., & Fischer, K.W. (in preparation). Consciousness and self. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Selected funders

IES (US Department of Education)

The Spencer Foundation

NIH

Dr. Sharon Solloway

The Simpson Foundation

The Leopold Foundation

Donor list

Selected clients

Glastonbury School District, CT

The Ross School

Rainbow Community School

The Study School

Long Trail School

The US Naval Academy

The City of Edmonton, Alberta

The US Federal Government

Advisory Board

Kurt Fischer, Ph.D. Harvard Graduate School of Education, Emeritus

Antonio Battro, MD, Ph.D., One Laptop Per Child

Marc Schwartz, Ph.D. and former high school teacher, University of Texas at Arlington

Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, Ed.D., University of Southern California

Willis Overton, Ph.D., Temple University, Emeritus