Information, articles, & evidence


Zak Stein on hierarchical complexity 2021

On metrics and Virtuous Cycles of Learning: A conversation with Dr. Theo Dawson—2022

Phronesis: Practical Wisdom for Leaders—2022

four presidents

How learning really works

Voices from the middle: Episode 14

Dr. Dawson discusses VUCA, learning, VCoL, & Role fit with Michael Friedman.


Dr. Dawson is a regular contributor on Medium. Here are a few of her most recent posts:


VUCA skills maps

How learning works


Decision making


Complexity series

National leaders

four presidents

Selected refereed publications

Thornton, A. (2023). Facing the Complexity Gap: Developing Leaders’ Reasoning Skills to Meet the Complex Task Demands of their Roles. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, The University of Western Australia.

Dawson, T. L. (2020). Rethinking educational assessment in light of a strong theory of development. In T. R. Biddell & M. F. Mascolo (Eds.), Handbook of Integrative Developmental Psychology (pp. 423-450). Abingdon, Oxon, UK: Taylor & Francis Routledge. 

Dawson, T. L. (2018). The DiscoTest Initiative: Evolution & rationale. Northampton, MA: Lectica, Inc.

Dawson, T. L. (2006). Stage-like patterns in the development of conceptions of energy. In X. Liu & W. Boone (Eds.), Applications of Rasch measurement in science education (pp. 111-136). Maple Grove, MN: JAM Press.

Dawson, T. L. (2003). A stage is a stage is a stage: A direct comparison of two scoring systemsJournal of Genetic Psychology, 164, 335-364.

Dawson, T. L. (2004). Assessing intellectual development: Three approaches, one sequenceJournal of Adult Development, 11, 71-85.

Dawson, T. L. (2002). New tools, new insights: Kohlberg's moral reasoning stages revisitedInternational Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 154-166.

Dawson, T. L. (2002). A comparison of three developmental stage scoring systemsJournal of Applied Measurement, 3, 146-189.

Dawson, T. L. (2001). Layers of structure: A comparison of two approaches to developmental assessmentGenetic Epistemologist, 29 (4), 1-10.

Dawson, T. L. (2000). Moral reasoning and evaluative reasoning about the good lifeJournal of Applied Measurement, 1 (372-397).

Dawson, T. L. (1994). Moral education: A review of constructivist theory and research. Unpublished position paper, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.

Dawson, T. L., & Fischer, K. W. (2006). Implications of assessment for learnersMeasurement, 4(4).

Dawson, T. L., Fischer, K. W., & Stein, Z. (2006). Reconsidering qualitative and quantitative research approaches: A cognitive-developmental perspectiveNew Ideas in Psychology, 24, 229-239.

Dawson, T. L., & Gabrielian, S. (2003). Developing conceptions of authority and contract across the life-span: Two perspectivesDevelopmental Review, 23, 162-218.

Dawson, T. L., & Stein, Z. (2008). Cycles of research and application in education: Learning pathways for energy concepts. Mind, Brain, & Education, 2(2), 90-103.

Dawson, T. L. & Stein, Z. (in prep.). The development of relativism.

Dawson, T. L., & Stein, Z. (2011). We are all learning here: Cycles of research and application in adult development. In C. Hoare (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of reciprocal adult development and learning (pp. 447-460). New York: Oxford.

Dawson, T. L., Xie, Y., & Wilson, M. (2003). Domain-general and domain-specific developmental assessments: Do they measure the same thing? Cognitive Development18, 61-78.

Dawson, T. L., & Wilson, M. (2004). The LAAS: A computerized developmental scoring system for small- and large-scale assessmentsEducational Assessment, 9, 153-191.

Dawson-Tunik, T. L. (2004). A good education is... The development of evaluative thought across the life-spanGenetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 130, 4-112.

Dawson-Tunik, T. L. (2006). The meaning and measurement of conceptual development in adulthood. In C. Hoare (Ed.), The intersection of adult development and learning: A handbook of theory, research, and practice (pp. 433-454). London: Oxford.

Dawson-Tunik, T. L., Fischer, K. W., Stein, Z. (2004). Do stages belong at the center of developmental theory? A commentary on Piaget's stagesNew Ideas in Psychology, 22, 255-263.

Dawson-Tunik, T. L., Commons, M., Wilson, M., & Fischer, K. (2005). The shape of developmentThe European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 2, 163-196.

Dawson, T. L., Goodheart, E. A., Wilson, M., & Commons, M. L. (2010). Concrete, abstract, formal, and systematic operations as observed in a "Piagetian" Balance Beam Task Series. Advances in Rasch Measurement, 11, 1-13.

Dawson, T., & Heikkinen, K. (2009). Identifying within-level differences in leadership decision making. Integral Leadership Review, 9(5).

Fischer, K. W., & Dawson, T. L. (2002). A new kind of developmental science: Using models to integrate theory and research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 67 (1, Serial No. 173), 156-167.

Fischer, K. W., Dawson, T., & Schnepps, M. (2011). Plasticity in learning pathways: Assessments that capture and facilitate learning. In A. M. Battro, S. Dehaene & W. J. Singer (Eds.), Human neuroplasticity and education: Proceedings of the working group (pp. 100-117). Vatican City: Pontifical Academy of Sciences.

Fuhs, C. J. (2015). A latent growth analysis of hierarchical complexity and perspectival skills in adulthood. Santa Barbara, CA, Fielding Graduate University.

Jackson, B. (2003). In search of peak experiences through life. Seeking the arenas and strategies for replicating the flow experience: A developmental perspective. Fielding Graduate Institute. Santa Barbara, Fielding Graduate Institute: 270.

Heikkinen, K. M. (2014). The Development of Social Perspective Coordination Skills in Grades 3-12. Graduate School of Education. Cambridge, MA, Harvard. Ph.D.: 208.

LaRusso, M., Kim, H. Y., Selman, R., Uccelli, P., Dawson, T., Jones, S., . . . Snow, C. (2016). Contributions of Academic Language, Perspective Taking, and Complex Reasoning to Deep Reading Comprehension. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 9(2), 201-222. 

Potter, P. (2016). Becoming a coach: Transformative learning and hierarchical complexity of coaching students. Santa Barbara, Fielding Graduate University.

Stein, Z. (2014). Tipping the scales: Social justice and educational measurement. Harvard Graduate School of Education. Cambridge, MA, Harvard. Ed.D.: 288.

Stein, Z. (2009). What's in a word? Re-tooling experimental methods and indices of abstractness. Harvard Graduate School of Education.

Stein, Z. (2007). Modeling the demands of interdisciplinary: Toward a framework for evaluating interdisciplinary endeavorsIntegral Review, 4.

Stein, Z., Connell, M., & Gardner, H. (2008). Exercising quality control in interdisciplinary education: Toward an epistemologically responsible approach. Journal of the Philosophy of Education, 42(3-4), 401-414.

Stein, Z., Dawson, T. L., & Fischer, K. W. (2010). Redesigning testing: Operationalizing the new science of learning.  In M. S. Khine & I. M. Saleh (Eds.), New science of learning: Computers, cognition and collaboration in education.  (pp.207-224) New York: Springer

Stein, Z., Della Chiesa, B., Hinton, C., & Fischer, K. W. (2010). Ethical issues in educational neuroscience: Raising children in a brave new world. In I. Sahakian (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics. London: Oxford University Press.

Stein, Z., & Fischer, K. W. (2008). Directions for mind, brain, and education: Methods, models, and morality. Educational Philosophy and Theory.

Stein, Z., & Heikkinen, K. (2008). On operationalizing aspects of altitude: An introduction to the Lectical Assessment System for integral researchers. Journal of Integral Theory and Practice 3(1), 105-138.

Stein, Z., & Hiekkinen, K. (2009). Metrics, models, and measurement in developmental psychology. Integral Review, 5(1), 4-24.

Van Rossum, Z. (2013). The development of social perspective-taking and leadership decision-making in city government managers. Teachers College. New York, Columbia University. Ed.D.: 285.

Dawson, T. L. (1998). Meaning and the hierarchical complexity of language (Education as play). Proceedings from Annual Symposium of the Jean Piaget Society, Chicago.

Dawson, T. L. (2008). The LAS. Northampton, MA: Developmental Testing Service, Inc.

Dawson, T. L. (2008). Metacognition and learning in adulthood: A literature review. Northampton, MA: Developmental Testing Service, Inc.

Dawson, T. L. (2008). Values centered leadership: A review of the relevant research. Northampton, MA: Developmental Testing Service, Inc.)

Dawson, T. L., & Stein, Z. (2006). Mind Brain & Education study: Final report. Northampton, MA: Developmental Testing Service, Inc.

Dawson-Tunik, T. L. (2006, April). The National Decision-Making Curriculum: Designing and evaluating developmentally informed curricula. Learning and the Brain, Cambridge, MA. 

Dawson, T. L., & Stein, Z. (2006). Leadership preferences, environment preferences, and motivators of GenY employees. Northampton, MA: Developmental Testing Service, Inc.

Dawson, T. L. (2005, June). It's all good: Moral relativism and the millennial generation. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Jean Piaget Society, Vancouver.

Dawson, T. L., & Stein, Z. (2005). Reasoning about morality in sons of lesbian and traditional parents: A developmental analysis.Northampton, MA: The Developmental Testing Service, Inc.

Dawson, T. L., & Stein, Z. (2005). A comparison of the content of the interviews of 30 lesbian and 30 traditional parents.Northampton, MA: The Developmental Testing Service, Inc.

Dawson-Tunik, T. L. & Stein, Z. (2004, July). Critical Thinking Seminar pre and post assessment results. Hatfield, MA: Developmental Testing Service, Inc.

Dawson, T. L., & Stein, Z. (2006). National decision-making curriculum. Results of the pre- and post-instruction developmental assessments. Northampton, MA: Developmental Testing Service.

Dawson, T. L., & Stein, Z. (2004). National Leadership Study results. Hatfield, MA: Developmental Testing Service, Inc.

Schwartz, M., & Dawson, T., L. (2010, April). Standards & assessments: The role of depth versus breadth in student success. A commitment to excellence: Redesigning student success in early childhood, elementary, secondary and postsecondary education

Stein, Z. & Dawson, T. L. (2004). It's all good: Moral relativism and the millennial mind. Paper presented at the The Millennial Mind, Baltimore, MD.

Dawson, T. L. (2021, June). The relation between argumentation quality & growth trajectory. Proceedings from the Annual Meeting of the Jean Piaget Society.

Dawson, T. L. (2021, June). The calibration of CLAS—an electronic cognitive-developmental scoring system for texts. Proceedings from the Annual Meeting of the Jean Piaget Society.

Dawson, T. L., & Stein, Z. (2008, August). Developmental differences in the understanding of Integral Theory: A statement of the problem and description of research methods (slides). Paper presented at the First Biennial Integral Theory Conference. MP3 (The audio goes with the slides.)

Dawson, T. L. (2008, June). Designing DiscoTests. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Jean Piaget Society. 

Dawson, T. L. (2008, June). Anatomy of a DiscoTest. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Jean Piaget Society. 

Dawson, T. L. & Stein, Z. (2007, November). It's all good: A fresh look at ethical relativism. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Moral Education, New York.

Dawson, T. L. (2007, November). The ultimate Tower of Babel makeover: Using cognitive developmental science to align educational standards, curricula, & assessments. Presented at the International Mind, Brain, and Education Society Conference. Fort Worth, TX.

Stein, Z. (2008, August). Developmental differences in the understanding of Integral theory and practice: An introduction to the problem and the Developmental Maieutic Approach. Paper presented at the First Biennial Integral Theory Conference. 

Stein, Z. (2008, August). Intuitions of altitude: Researching the conditions of the possibility for developmental assessment. Paper presented at the First Biennial Integral Theory Conference. MP3 (The audio goes with the slides.)

Stein, Z., Schwartz, M., & Dawson, T. L. (2009). Testing the limits of testing. Symposium presented at the IMBES Conference. 

Dawson, T. L. & Z. Stein (2010). Developmental maieutics—a methodology for integrating research, assessment, curricula, and instruction. SERP CCDD Working Group. Cambridge, MA.

Schwartz, M. and T. Dawson, L (2010). Standards & assessments: The role of depth versus breadth in student success. A commitment to excellence: Redesigning student success in early childhood, elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education. Dallas, TX.

Solloway, S. G. & T. L. Dawson (2010). Utilizing Rasch analysis to compare the psychometric properties of four mindfulness measures and conduct scale revision. Investigating and Integrating Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society: 8th Annual International Scientific Conference for Clinicians, Researchers, and Educators. Worchester, MA.

Stein, Z., et al. (2010). Global consciousness, communities, and conflict resolution: a preliminary investigation into the development of cosmopolitan reasoning skills. Northampton, MA, For the Ross School.

Dawson, T. L. & Z. Stein (2011). Developing conceptions of leadership. MBE summer institute. Cambridge, MA.

Dawson, T. L. & Z. Stein (2011). Redesigning testing: The science of learning & the future of educational assessment. MBE Summer Institute.

Dawson, T. L. (2013). Redesigning testing in science: Bringing research-based diagnostic assessments into the classroom. NSTA.

Dawson, T. (2014). Assessing clinical reasoning: beyond the facts. Dalhousie Summer Institute, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Dawson, T. (2014). A confirmatory Rasch analysis of the RFJ001. International Objective Measurement Workshop. Philadelphia.

Dawson, T. L. (2013). Redesigning testing in science: Bringing research-based diagnostic assessments into the classroom. NSTA.

Dawson, T. & Dear, S. (2014). Learning, the brain, and technology: A new approach to assessment. NAIS, Orlando, Florida.

Dawson, T. L. (2014). From theory to practice: supporting the development of reflective judgment skills in the classroom. The biennial meeting of IMBES, Dallas, TX.

Dawson, T. L. & Seneviratna, Gayan (2015). Cultivating the integral mind: New evidence that well-integrated neural networks catalyze development. ITC. Sonoma, CA.

Dawson, T. L. (2015). Integral assessment: More than one pathway? ITC. Sonoma, CA.

Drossman, H., et al. (2015). Development of an Integral-Motivated Lectical® Ecological Stewardship Assessment. ITC. Sonoma, CA.

Dawson, T. L., et al. (2015). Cultivating the integral mind: the relation between development and perceptions of performance in a large-scale leadership program. ITC. Sonoma, CA.

Thornton, A. M. A., Dawson, Theo L. (2015). Exploring the relation between Ego development & neo-Piagetian development: Practical and theoretical implications. ITC. Sonoma, CA.

Dawson, T. L. (2016). Second language learning predicts the growth of critical thinking. Paper presented at the ACTFL conference. Boston, MA.

Dawson, T. L. (2017, October 20). Using technology to advance understanding: The calibration of CLAS, an electronic developmental scoring system. Proceedings from Annual Conference of the Northeastern Educational Research Association, Trumbull, CT.

Dawson, T. L., & Thornton, A. M. A. (2017, October 18). An examination of the relationship between argumentation quality and students’ growth trajectories. Proceedings from Annual Conference of the Northeastern Educational Research Association, Trumbull, CT.

Solloway, S. W. & T. L. Dawson (2016). Growing into compassion. Paper presented at the Mind & Life conference. San Diego, CA.

References arranged by topic

development | decision making | ethics | leadership | reflective judgment | self understanding | testing


Amabile, T., M. (1998). How to kill creativity. Harvard Business Review, September-October, 77-87.

Bessant, J. (1992). Big bang or continuous evolution: Why incremental innovation is gaining attention in successful organisations. Creativity and Innovation Management, 1(2), 59-62.

Chernin, P. (2002).Creative leadership. Executive Excellence, 3-4.

Dennis, A. R., & Valacich, J. S. (1993 ). Computer brainstorms: More heads are better than one. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 531-537.

Diehl, M., & Stroebe, W. (1991). Productivity loss in idea-generating groups: Tracking down the blocking effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 61, 392-403.

Ekvall, G. (1991). Change-centred leaders: Empirical evidence of a third dimension of leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 12(6), 18-23.

Furnham, A., & Yazdanpanahi, T. (1996). Personality differences and group versus individual brainstorming. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 73-80.

Gronhaug, K., & Haukedal, W. (1995). Experts and novices in innovative, unstructured tasks: The case of strategy formation. Creativity and Innovation Management, 4(1), 4-13.

Jung, D. I. (2002-2001). Transformational and transactional leadership and their effects on creativity in groups. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 185-195.

Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. (1987). Leading workers to lead themselves: The external leadership of self-managing work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 106-128.

Parnes, S. J. (Ed.). (1992). Sourcebook for creative problem-solving. Buffalo, NY: Creative Education Foundation Press.

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2007). Educational fads: Foundation for Critical Thinking Press.

Riquelme, H. (2000). How to develop more creative strategic plans. Creativity and Innovation Management, 9, 14-20.

Ross, J. A. (2007). Creative leadership: Be your team's chief innovation officer. Harvard Management Update, March.

Rubenson, D. L., & Runco, M. A. (1995). The psychoeconomic view of creative work in groups and organizations. Creativity and Innovation Management, 4(3), 232-241.

Rura-Polley, & Clegg, S. R. (1999). Managing collaborative quality: A challenging innovation. Creativity and Innovation Management, 8, 37-47.

Shin, S. J., & Zhou, J. (2007). When Is educational specialization heterogeneity related to creativity in research and development teams? Transformational leadership as a moderator. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(6), 1709-1721.

Tierney, P., Farmer, S. M., & Graen, G. B. (1999). An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships. Personnel Psychology, 52, 591-620.

development | decision making | ethics | leadership | reflective judgment | self understanding | testing

Cognitive development

Armon, C. (1984). Ideals of the good life: Evaluative reasoning in children and adults. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Harvard, Boston.

Armon, C., & Dawson, T. L. (1997). Developmental trajectories in moral reasoning across the lifespan. Journal of Moral Education, 26, 433-453.

Case, R. (1985). Intellectual development: Birth to adulthood. New York: Academic Press.

Case, R., & Okamoto, Y. (1996). The role of central conceptual structures in the development of children's thought (Vol. 61 (1-2). New York: Blackwell.

Cavallo, A. M. L. (1996). Meaningful learning, reasoning ability, and students' understanding and problem solving of topics in genetics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33, 625-656.

Chandler, M. J., Boyes, M., & Ball, L. (1990). Relativism and stations of epistemic doubt. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 370-395.

Colby, A., & Kohlberg, L. (1987a). The measurement of moral judgment, Vol. 1: Theoretical foundations and research validation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Colby, A., & Kohlberg, L. (1987b). The measurement of moral judgment, Vol. 2: Standard issue scoring manual. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Commons, M. L., Trudeau, E. J., Stein, S. A., Richards, S. A., & Krause, S. R. (1998). Hierarchical complexity of tasks shows the existence of developmental stages. Developmental Review, 18, 237-278.

Commons, M. L., Straughn, J., Meaney, M., Johnstone, J., Weaver, J. H., Lichtenbaum, E., et al. (1995, November). The general stage scoring system: How to score anything. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the Association for Moral Education.

Damon, W. (1977). Measurement and social development. Counseling Psychologist, 6, 13-15.

Demetriou, A., Platsidou, M., Efklides, A., Metallidou, Y., & et al. (1991). The development of quantitative-relational abilities from childhood to adolescence: Structure, scaling, and individual differences. Learning & Instruction, 1, 19-43.

Fischer, K. (1980). A theory of cognitive development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills. Psychological Review, 87, 477-531.

Fischer, K., & Rose, S. P. (1999). Rulers, clocks, and non-linear dynamics: Measurement and method in developmental research. In G. Savelsbergh & H. van der Maas & P. van Geert (Eds.), Nonlinear developmental processes (pp. 197-212). Amsterdam: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Fischer, K. W., & Bidell, T. R. (1998). Dynamic development of psychological structures in action and thought. In W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Theoretical models of human development (5 ed., pp. 467-561). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Fischer, K. W., Hand, H. H., Watson, M. W., van Parys, M., & Tucker, J. (1984). Putting the child into socialization: The development of social categories in preschool children. In L. Katz (Ed.), Current topics in early childhood education (Vol. 5, pp. 27-72). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Furnham, A., & Briggs, J. (1993). Ethical ideology and moral choice: A study concerning the allocation of medical resources.Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 8(1), 87-98.

Germann. (1994). Testing a model of science process skills acquisition: An interaction with parents' education, preferred language, gender, science attitude, cognitive development, academic ability, and biology knowledge. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31, 749-783.

Halford, G. (1999). The development of intelligence includes the capacity to processing relations of greater complexity, The development of intelligence. (pp. 193-213). Hove, England: Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis (UK).

Harvey, M. E. (2001). The impact of organizational ethical climate and ethical ideology on the propensity to create budgetary slack and job satisfaction. Nova Southeastern University, Ann Arbor, MI.

Hooijiberg, R., & Schneider (2001). Behavioral complexity and social intelligence: how executive leaders use stakeholders to form systems perspective. In Zaccaro & Klimoski (Eds.), The nature of organizational leadership: Understanding the performance imperatives confronting today's leaders. (pp. 104-131). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Jaques, E. (1996). Requisite organization. Arlignton, VA.: Cason Hall & Co.

Keller, M., Eckensberger, L. H., & von Rosen, K. (1989). A critical note on the conception of preconventional morality: The case of stage 2 in Kohlberg's theory. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 12, 57-69.

Keller, M., Edelstein, W., Schmid, C., Fang, F., & Faug, G. (1998). Reasoning about responsibilities and obligations in close relationships: A comparison across two cultures. Developmental Psychology, 34(4), 731-741.

Killen, M. (1991). Social and moral development in early childhood. In J. L. G. William M. Kurtines (Ed.), Handbook of moral behavior and development, Vol. 1: Theory; Vol. 2: Research; Vol. 3: Application. (pp. 115-138): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US.

Kitchener, K. S. (1983). Cognition, metacognition, and epistemic cognition: A three level model of cognitive processing. Human Development, 26, 222-232.

Kitchener, K. S., & King, P. M. (1990). The reflective judgment model: ten years of research. In M. L. Commons & C. Armon & L. Kohlberg & F. A. Richards & T. A. Grotzer & J. D. Sinnott (Eds.), Adult development (Vol. 2, pp. 62-78). New York NY: Praeger.

Kleiser, S. B., Sivadas, E., Kellaris, J. J., & Dahlstrom, R. F. (2003). Ethical ideologies: Efficient assessment and influence on ethical judgements of marketing practices. Psychology & Marketing, 20(1), 1-21.

Kuhn, D. (1976). Short-term longitudinal evidence for the sequentiality of Kohlberg's early stages of moral judgment. Developmental Psychology, 12, 162-166.

Kuhn, D., Cheney, R., & Weinstock, M. (2000). The development of epistemological understanding. Cognitive Development, 15, 309-328.

Lawson, A. E., Alkhoury, S., Benford, R., Clark, B. R., & Falconer, K. A. (2000). What kinds of scientific concepts exist? Concept construction and intellectual development in college biology. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37, 996-1018.

Lawson, A. E., & Renner, J. W. (1975). Relationships of concrete and formal operational science subject matter and the developmental level of the learner. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 12, 347-358.

Lawson, A. E., & Thompson, L. D. (1988). Formal reasoning ability and misconceptions concerning genetics and natural selection. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 25, 733-746.

Lawson, A. E., & Weser, J. (1990). The rejection of nonscientific beliefs about life: Effects of instruction and reasoning skills.Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27, 589-606.

Marshall, P. E. (2009). Positive psychology and constructivist developmental psychology: A theoretical enquiry into how a developmental stage conception might provide further insights into specific areas of positive psychology. Unpublished Msc dissertation. University of East London, School of Psychology. (Paul writes a mean lit review!)

Mines, R. A., King, P. M., Hood, A. B., & Wood, P. K. (1990). Stages of intellectual development and associated critical thinking skills in college students. Journal of College Student Development, 31, 538-547.

Perry, W. G. (1970). Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1969). The psychology of the child. New York: Basic Books.

Piaget, J. (2000). Studies in reflecting abstraction (R. L. Campbell, Trans.). Hove: Psychology Press.

Park, H. (2002). Socially responsible buying in the apparel industry. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Renner, J. W., & Marek, E. A. (1990). An educational theory base for science teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27, 241-246.

Schoenfeld, A. (Ed.). (2007). Assessing mathematical proficiency (Vol. 53). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Schommer, M. (1990). Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 498-504.

Schommer, M. (1994). An emerging conceptualization of epistemological beliefs and their role in learning. In R. Garner & P. A. Alexander (Eds.), Beliefs about text and instruction with text (pp. 25-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Schommer, M., Calvert, C., Gariglietti, G., & Bajaj, A. (1997). The development of epistemological beliefs among secondary students: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 37-40.

Schommer-Aikins, M., & Hutter, R. (2002). Epistemological beliefs and thinking about everyday controversial issues. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary & Applied, 136, 1.

Schwartz, M. S., Sadler, P. M., Sonnert, G., & Tai, R. H. (2008). Depth versus breadth: How content coverage in high school science courses relates to later success in college science coursework. Science Education. (excellent recent article on the relative benefits of teaching for depth and breadth)

Shayer, M., & Adey, P. S. (1993). Accelerating the development of formal thinking in middle and high school students: IV. Three years after a two-year intervention. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 30, 351-366.

Silva, T., & Nicholls, J. G. (1993). College students as writing theorists: Goals and beliefs about the causes of success. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18, 281-293.

Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis: Modeling change and event occurrence. New York: Oxford.

Sivadas, E., Kleiser, S. B., Kellaris, J., & Dahlstrom, R. (2002). Moral philosophy, ethical evaluations, and sales manager hiring intentions. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 23(1), 7-21.

Spiro, R. J., Coulson, R. L., Feltovich, P. J., & Anderson, D. (1988). Cognitive flexibility theory: Advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains. In V. Patel (Ed.), Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Vitell, S. J., Rallapalli, K. C., & Singhapakdi, A. (1993). Marketing norms: The influence of personal moral philosophies and organizational ethical culture. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 21(4), 331-337.

Wilson, M., & Sloane, K. (2000). From principles to practice: An embedded assessment system. Applied Measurement in Education, 13, 181-208

development | decision making | ethics | leadership | reflective judgment | self understanding | testing

Decision making

Arlin, P. K. (1989). Problem solving and problem finding in young artists and young scientists. In M. L. Commons, J. D. Sinnott, F. A. Richards & C. Armon (Eds.), Adult development, Vol. 1: Comparisons and applications of developmental models. (pp. 197-216).

Bandura, A., & Jourden, F. (1991). Self-regulatory mechanisms governing the impact of social comparison on complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 941-951.

Basadur, M., & Hausdorf, P. A. (1996). Measuring divergent thinking attitudes related to creative problem solving and innovation management. Creativity Research Journal, 9, 21-32.

Bass, K., & Barnett, T. B. (1998). The moral philosophy of sales managers and its influence on ethical decision making. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 18(2), 1-17.

Bazerman, M. H. (1986 ). Judgement in managerial decision making. New York: Wiley.

Bransford, J. D., Sherwood, R., Vye, N. J., & Rieser, J. (1986). Teaching thinking and problem solving. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1078-1089.

Ewell- Kumar, A. (1999). The influence of metacognition on managerial hiring decision making: Implications for management development. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 59(10-A).

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Hammond, K. R., McClelland, G. H., & Mumpower, J. (1980). Human judgement and decision making. New York: Praeger.

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Klaczynski, P. A. (1997). The roles of personal investment and reasoning competence in career-relevant everyday problem solving. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66(2), 193-210.

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Lee, D. (1991). Relativistic operations: A framework for conceptualizing teachers' everyday problem solving. In J. Sinnot & J. C. Cavanaugh (Eds.), Bridging paradigms: Positive development in adulthood and cognitive aging. (pp. 73-86). New York: Praeger Publishers.

Leonard, N. H., Scholl, R. W., & Berube-Kowalski, K. (1999). Information processing style and decision making. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(3), 407-420.

Linstone, H. A. (1999). Decision making for technology executives: Using multiple perspectives to improve performances. Norwood, MA: Artech House.

Loe, T. W., Ferrell, L., & Mansfield, P. (2000). A review of empirical studies assessing ethical decision making in business.Joumal of Business Ethics 25(185-204).

March, J. G. (1994). A primer on decision making. The Free Press: New York.

Meacham, J. A., & Emont, N. C. (1989). The interpersonal basis of everyday problem solving. In J. D. Sinnott (Ed.), Everyday problem solving: Theory and applications. (pp. 7-23). New York, NY: Praeger Publishers.

Newell, A., & Simon, H. A. (1972). Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

Nutt, P. C. (1976). Models for decision making in organizations and some contextual variables which stipulate optimal use. The Academy of Management Review, 1(2), 84-98.

Ravlin, E. C., & Meglino, B. M. (1987). Effect of values on perception and decision making: A study of alternative work values measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 666-673.

Sigler, E. A., & Tallent-Runnels, M. K. (2006). Examining the validity of scores from an instrument designed to measure metacognition of problem solving. The Journal of General Psychology, 133, 257-276.

Sinnott, J. D. (1991). Limits to problem solving: Emotion, intention, goal clarity, health, and other factors in postformal thought. In J. D. Sinnot & J. D. Cavanaugh (Eds.), Bridging paradigms: Positive development in adulthood and cognitive aging. (pp. 169-201). New York, NY: Praeger Publishers.

Sinnott, J. D. (Ed.). (1989). Everyday problem solving: Theory and applications. Praeger Publishers; New York, NY, US.

Sinnott, J. D., & Guttmann, D. (1978). Dialectics of decision making in older adults. Human Development, 21, 190-200.

Sternberg, R. J. & Frensch, P. A. (Eds.). (1991). Complex problem solving: Principles and mechanisms. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; Hillsdale, NJ, US.

Vroom, V., & Yetton, P. W. (1973). Leadership and decision making. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Weber, J. (1996). Influences upon managerial moral decision making: Nature of the harm and magnitude of consequences. Human Relations, 49(1), 1-22.

Wynn, C. T. (1989). Decision making and postformal thought: Goals for secondary social studies education. Journal of Social Studies Research, 13, 1-9.

Zych, J. M. (1999). Integrating ethical issues with managerial decision making in the classroom: Product support programme decisions. Journal of Business Ethics, 18, 255-266.

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Ethical reasoning and behavior

Bartek, S. E., Krebs, D. L., et al. (1993). Coping, defending, and the relations between moral judgment and moral behavior in prostitutes and other female juvenile delinquents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 102(1): 66-73.

Blasi, A. (1983). Moral cognition and moral action: A theoretical perspective. Developmental Review 3: 178-210.

Coady, H. (1986). Behavioral correlates of moral judgment. Journal of Psychology 120: 191-198.

Dawson, T. L. (2008). Values-centered leadership: A review. Northampton, MA: Developmental Testing Service, Inc.

Hoffman, M. L. (1991). Empathy, social cognition, and moral action. Handbook of moral behavior and development, Vol. 1: Theory. W. Kurtines and L. G. Jacob. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum: 275-301.

Jennings, W. S. and L. Kohlberg (1983). Effects of a just community programme on the moral development of youthful offenders. Journal of Moral Education 12: 33-50.

Keller, M. and W. Edelstein (1993). The development of the moral self from childhood to adolescence. The moral self. Studies in contemporary German social thought. G. G., Noam, T. E. Wren, G. Nunner-Winkler and W. Edelstein. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press: 310-336.

Kohlberg, L. (1984). The relationship of moral judgment to moral action. Morality, moral behavior, and moral development. W. Kurtines and J. Gewirtz. New York, John Wiley & Sons: 52-73. 

Levin, I. and R. Beckerman-Greenberg (1980). Moral judgment and moral behavior in sharing: A developmental analysis. Genetic Psychology Monographs 101: 215-230.

Narvaez, D. (1991). The college experience and moral development. Handbook of moral behavior and development, Vol. 2: Research. W. M. Kurtines and J. L. Gewirtz. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum: 229-245.

Oser, F. (1991). Moral judgment and action: An unresolved problem in the helping professions. Cadernos de Consulta Psicologica: 83-92.

Pratt, M. W., Golding, G., et al. (1988). Sex differences in adult moral orientations. Journal of Personality 56: 373-391.

Rothman, G. R. (1980). The relationship between moral judgment and moral behavior. Moral development and socialization. M. Windmiller, N. Lambert and E. Turiel. Boston, Allyn & Bacon: 107-127.

Selman, R. L., Schultz, L. H., et al. (1991). Interpersonal understanding and action: A development and psychopathology perspective on research and prevention. Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology, Vol. 3: Models and integrations. Dante Cicchetti. Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, MA: 289-329.

Thoma, S. J. (1993). The relationship between political preference and moral judgment development in late adolescence. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 39: 359-74.

Thoma, S. J., Rest, J. R., et al. (1991). Describing and testing a moderator of the moral judgment and action relationship. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 61: 659-669.

development | decision making | ethics | leadership | reflective judgment | self understanding | testing

Leadership reasoning and behavior

Bass, B. M. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 9-32.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: The Free Press.

Boal, K. B., & Hooijberg, R. (2001). Strategic leadership research: Moving on. Leadership Quarterly, 11(4), 515-550.

Campbell, D. J., Dardis, G., & Campbell, K. M. (2003). Enhancing incremental influence: A focused approach to leadership development. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 10(1).

Clark, D. F. (2019). Women, relational leadership and power: A qualitative study of how senior women leaders experience, conceptualize, and practice leadership and power (Doctoral Dissertation). 

Connelly, M. S., Gilbert, J. A., Zaccaro, S. J., Threlfall, K. V., Marks, M. A., & Mumford, M. D. (2000). Exploring the relationship of leadership skills and knowledge to leader performance. Leadership Quarterly, 11, 65-68.

den Hartog, D. N., van Muijen, J. J., & Koopman, P. L. (1997). Transactional versus transformational leadership: An analysis of the MLQ. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70, 19-34.

Denison, D. R., Hooijberg, R., & Quinn, R. E. (1995). Paradox and performance: Toward a theory of behavioral complexity in managerial leadership. Organization Science, 6(5), 524-540.

Drath, W. H. (1990). Managerial strengths and weaknesses as functions of the development of personal meaning. Special Issue: Character and leadership. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 26, 483-499.

Eigel, K. M., & Kuhnert, K. W. (2005). Authentic development: Leadership development level and executive effectiveness. Monographs in Leadership and Management, 3, 357-385.

Ekvall, G. (1991). Change-centred leaders: Empirical evidence of a third dimension of leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 12(6), 18-23.

Gentry, W. A., & Leslie, J. B. (2007). Competencies for leadership development: What's hot and what's not when assessing leadership implications for organization development. Organization Development Journal, 25(1), 37-46.

Graham, J. W. (1995). Leadership, moral development, and citizenship behavior. Business Ethics Quarterly, 5(1), 43-54.

Harris, L. S., & Kuhnert, K. W. (2008). Looking through the lens of leadership: A constructive deveopmental approach. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, 29(1), 47-67.

Hater, J. J., & Bass, B. M. (1988). Superiors' evaluations and subordinates perceptions of transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(4), 695-702.

Hess, P. W. (2007). Enhancing leadership skill development by creating practice/feedback opportunities in the classroom.Journal of Management Education, 31(2), 195-214.

Jung, D. I. (2002-2001). Transformational and transactional leadership and their effects on creativity in groups. Creativity Research Journal, 13, 185-195.

Kuhnert, K. W. (in press). Personality and leadership developmental levels as predictors of leader performance. Leadership Quarterly.

Kuhnert, K. W., & Lewis, P. (1987). Transactional and transformational leadership: a constructive developmental analysis.Academy of Management Review, 12(648-657).

Kuhnert, K. W., & Russell, C. J. (1990). Using constructive developmental theory and biodata to bridge the gap between personnel selection and leadership. Journal of Management, 16, 595-607.

Lang, D. L. (1991). Transformational leadership Is not charismatic leadership: Philosophical impoverishment in leadership continues. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 2(4), 397-402.

Leithwood, K., & Steinbach, R. (1993). Total quality leadership: Expert thinking plus transformational practice. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 7, 311-337.

Lichtenstein, B. M., Smith, B. A., & Torbert, W. R. (1995). Leadership and ethical development: Balancing light and shadow. Business Ethics Quarterly, 5(1), 97-116.

Lievens, F., Van Geit, P., & Coetsier, P. (1997). Identification of transformational leadership qualities: An examination of potential biases. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 6(4), 415-430.

Lincoln, Y. S. (1989). Critical requisites for transformational leadership: Needed research and discourse. Peabody Journal of Education, 66, 176-181.

Lord, R. G., & Emrich, C. G. (2000). Thinking outside the box by looking inside the box: extending the cognitive revolution in leadership research. Leadership Quarterly, 11, 552-579.

Mumford, M. D., Marks, M. A., Connelly, M. S., Zaccaro, S. J., & Reiter-Palmon, R. (2000). Development of leadership skills: experience and timing. Leadership Quarterly, 11, 87-114.

Mumford, M. D., Zaccaro, S. J., Harding, F. D., Jacobs, T. O., & Fleishman, E. A. (2000). Leadership skills for a changing world: solving complex social problems. Leadership Quarterly(11), 11-35.

Pless, N. (2007). Understanding responsible leadership: Role identity and motivational drivers. Journal of Business Ethics, 74(4), 437-456.

Russell, C. J., & Kuhnert, K. W. (1992). Integrating skill acquisition and perspective taking capacity in the development of leaders. Leadership Quarterly, 3, 335-353.

Russell, C. J., & Kuhnert, K. W. (1992). New frontiers in management selection systems: Where measurement technologies and theory collide. Special Issue: Individual differences and leadership: III. Leadership Quarterly, 3, 109-135.

Sama, L., & Shoaf, V. (2008). Ethical leadership for the professions: Fostering a moral community. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(1/2), 39-46.

Singer, M. (1990 ). Cognitive correlates of adolescents' aspirations to leadership: A developmental study. Journal of Adolescence, 13, 143-155.

Sosik, J. J., & Megerian, L. E. (1999). Understanding leader emotional intelligence and performance: The role of self-other agreement on transformational leadership perceptions. Group and Organization Management, 24, 367-390.

Sparks, J. R., & Schnek, J. A. (2001). Explaining the effects of transformational leadership: An investigation of the effects of higher-order motives in multilevel marketing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 849-869.

Sternberg, R. J. (2006). Creative leadership: It's a decision. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, November/December, 22-24.

Sternberg, R. J. (2007). A systems model of leadership. American Psychologist, 34-42.

Sternberg, R. J., & Vroom, V. (2002). The person versus the situation in leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 13(301-323).

Taylor, P. (1994). Leadership in education: A review of the literature. Emergency Librarian, 21(3), 9.

Thornton, A. (2023). Facing the Complexity Gap: Developing Leaders’ Reasoning Skills to Meet the Complex Task Demands of their Roles. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, The University of Western Australia.

Turner, N., Barling, J., Epitropaki, O., Biutcher, V., & Milner, C. (2002). Transformational leadership and moral reasoning. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 304-311.

Wofford, J. C., & Goodwin, V. L. (1994). A cognitive interpretation of transactional and transformational leadership theories.Leadership Quarterly, 5, 161-186.

Wofford, J. C., & Goodwin, V. L. (1998). A field study of a cognitive approach to understanding transactional and transformational leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 9(55-84).

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Reflective judgment and behavior

Dawson, T. L. (2008). Metacognition and learning in adulthood: A literature review. Northampton, MA: Developmental Testing Service, Inc.

Boyes, M.C. and M. Chandler, Cognitive development, epistemic doubt, and identity formation in adolescence. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 1992. 21: p. 3.

Cicala, J.J., The relationship between student involvement and reflective judgement for students attending a community college. 1997.

Dunkle, M.E., et al., The relationship between epistemological beliefs and causal reasoning, in Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. 1994: New Orleans, LA.

Guthrie, V.L., The relationship of levels of intellectual development and levels of tolerance for diversity among college students, in Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences. 1997. p. 4666.

Hofer, B., Epistemological beliefs and first-year college students: Motivation and cognition in different instructional contexts, in Annual meeting of the American Psychological Association. 1994: Los Angeles.

Kajanne, A., Structure and content: The relationship between reflective judgment and laypeople's viewpoints. Journal of Adult Development, 2003. 10(3): p. 173-188.

Kardash, C.M. and R.J. Scholes, Effects of preexisiting beliefs, epistemological beliefs, and need for cognition on interpretation of controversial issues. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1996. 88(2): p. 260-271.

King, P.M. and B.C. Shuford, A multicultural view is a more cognitively complex view: Cognitive development and multicultural education. American Behavioral Scientist, 1996. 40: p. 153-164. 

Kirk, S.L., The assessment of learning styles and cognitive development of adult students in a higher education setting: Implications for teaching, administration, and advisement, in Dissertation Abstracts International, 50, 3863. 1986, Oklahoma State University: Stillwater.

King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (1994). Developing reflective judgment: Understanding and promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in adolescents and adults. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Kozak, A.I., Epistemological development and adaptation: Reflective judgment and stressful affect and their relationship to affect-tolerance and attributions of pragmatic structure, in Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering. 1996. p. 0699.

Lodewyk, K.R., Relations among epistemological beliefs, academic achievement, and task performance in secondary school students. Educational Psychology, 2007. 27(3): p. 307-327.

Mason, L. and P. Boscolo, Role of epistemological understanding and interest in interpreting a controversy and in topic-specific belief change. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 2004. 29: p. 103-128.

Mines, R.A., et al., Stages of intellectual development and associated critical thinking skills in college students. Journal of College Student Development, 1990. 31: p. 538-547.

Qian, G. and D. Alvermann, Role of epistemological beliefs and learned helplessness in secondary school students— learning science concepts from text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1995. 87: p. 282-292.

Ryan, M.P., Conceptions of prose coherence: Individual differences in epistemological standards. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1984. 76(6): p. 1226-1238.

Schoenfeld, A.H., Mathematical problem solving. 1985, New York: Academic Press.

Schommer, M., A. Crouse, and N. Rhodes, Epistemological beliefs and mathematical text comprehension: Believing it is simple does not make it so. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1992. 84: p. 435-443.

Schommer, M., Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1990. 82: p. 498-504.

Schommer, M., Epistemological development and academic performance among secondary students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1993. 85: p. 406-411.

Schommer, M., et al., The development of epistemological beliefs among secondary students: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1997. 89: p. 37-40.

Schraw, G., M.E. Dunkle, and L.D. Benedixen, Cognitive processes in well-defined and ill-defined problem-solving. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 1995. 9: p. 523-538.

Schutz, P.A., P.R. Pintrich, and A.J. Young, Epistemological beliefs, motivation, and student learning, in Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. 1993: Atlanta, GA.

Whitmire, E., The relationship between undergraduates epistemological beliefs, reflective judgment, and their information-seeking behavior. Information Processing and Management, 2004. 40: p. 97-111.

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Self understanding

Baldwin, J. M. (1897). The genesis of the ethical self. Philosophical Review, 6, 225-241.

Bandura, A., & Jourden, F. (1991). Self-regulatory mechanisms governing the impact of social comparison on complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 941-951.

Bandura, A., & Locke, E. A. (2003). Negative self-efficacy and goal effects revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 87-99.

Baumeister, R. F., Smart, L., & Boden, J. M. (1999). Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem. Psychological Review, 103(1), 5-33.

Bernstein, R. M. (1980). The development of the self-system during adolescence. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 136, 231-245.

Blasi, A., & Oresick, R. G. (1986). Emotion and cognition in self-consistency. In D. J. Bearison & H. Zimiles (Eds.), Thought and emotion. Hillsdale, N. J.: Earlbaum.

Blasi, A., & Milton, K. (1991). The development of the sense of self in adolescence. Journal of Personality, 59, 217-242.

Brewer, M. (1991). The social self: on being the same and defferent at the same time. Personality and Social Psychology, 17,475-482.

Brinthaupt, T. M., & Erwin, L. J. (1992). Reporting about the self: Issues and implications. In T. M. Brinthaupt & R. P. Lipka (Eds.), The self: Definitional and methodological issues (pp. 137-171). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Broughton, J. M. (1978). Development of concepts of self, mind, reality, and knowledge (Vol. 1).

Cohler, B. J., & Galatzer-Levy, R. M. (1990). Self, meaning, and morale across the second half of life. In R. A. Nemiroff & C. A. Colarusso (Eds.), New dimensions in adult development. (pp. 214-263). New York, NY: BasicBooks, Inc.

Damon, W., & Hart, D. (1982). The development of self-understanding from infancy through adolescence. Child Development, 53, 841-864.

Demetriou, A. (2003). Mind, self, and personality: Dynamic interactions from late childhood to early adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 10(3), 151-172.

Demetriou, A., Kazi, S., & Georgiou, G. (1999). The emerging self: The convergence of mind, personality, and thinking styles. Developmental Science, 2, 387-409.

Dusek, J. B., & Flaherty, J. F. (1981). The development of the self-concept during the adolescent years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 46.

Edelstein, W., & Noam, G. G. (1982). Regulatory structures of the self and "postformal" stages in adulthood. Human Development, 25, 407-422.

Epstein, S. (1973). The self-concept revisited: Or a theory of a theory. American Psychologist, 28, 404-416.

Epstein, S. (1989). Values from the perspective of congnitive-experiential self-theory. In N. Eisenberg, J. Reykowski & E. Staub (Eds.), Social and moral values. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Gilligan, C. (1977). In a different voice: Women's conceptions of self and of morality. Harvard Educational Review, 47, 481-517.

Greenwald, A. G., Rudman, L. A., Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., Farnham, S. D., & Mellott, D. S. (2002). A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept. Psychological Review 109(1), 3-25.

Hart, D., & Damon, W. (1986). Developmental trends in self-understanding. Social Cognition, 4, 388-407.

Hart, D., Lucca-Irizarry, N., & Damon, W. (1986). The development of self-understanding in Puerto Rico and the United States. Journal of Early Adolescence, 6, 293-304.

Hart, D. (1988). Self-concept in the social context of the adolescent. In D. Lapsely & F. C. Power (Eds.), Self, ego, and identity: Integrative approaches (pp. 71-90). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Hart, D., & Edelstein, W. (1992). Self-understanding development in cross-cultural perspective. In T. M. Brinthaupt & R. P. Lipka (Eds.), The self: Definitional and methodological issues. SUNY series, studying the self. (pp. 291-322): State University of New York Press, Albany, NY, US.

Hart, D., & Fegley, S. (1995). Prosocial behavior and caring in adolescence: Relations to self-understanding and social judgment. Child Development, 66, 1346-1359.

Harter, S. (1983). Developmental perspectives on the self-system. In E. M. Hetherington (Ed.), Socialization, personality, and social development (4 ed., Vol. 4). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Harter, S. (1997). The development of self-representations. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology. Vol 3: Social, emotional, and personality development (5 ed., pp. 553-617). New York: Wiley.

Haste, H. (1993). Morality, self, and sociohistorical context: The role of lay social theory. In G. G. Noam, T. E. Wren, G. Nunner-Winkler & W. Edelstein (Eds.), The moral self. Studies in contemporary German social thought. (pp. 175-208). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Henderson, A. F., & Kegan, R. (1989). Learning, knowing, and the self: A constructive developmental view. In K. Field, B. J. Cohler & G. Wool (Eds.), Learning and education: Psychoanalytic perspectives. Emotions and behavior monographs, No. 6. (pp. 267-303). Madison, CT: International Universities Press.

Higgins, E. T., Klein, R., & Strauman, T. (1985). Self-concept discrepancy theory: A psychological model for distinguishing among different aspects of depression and anxiety. Special Issue: Depression. Social Cognition, 3(1), 51-76.

Higgins, A. (1995). Understanding the moral self: Research goals for the next five years. Moral Education Forum, 20, 30-33.

Johnson, J. A., & Hogan, R. (1981). Moral judgments and self-presentations. Journal of Research in Personality, 15(1), 57-63.

Judge, T. A., Bono, J. E., Erez, A., & Locke, E. A. (2005). Core self-evaluations and job and life satisfaction: The role of self-concordance and goal attainment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(2), 257-268.

Kegan, R. G. (1979). The evolving self: A process conception for ego psychology. Counseling Psychologist, 8(2), 5-34.

Labouvie-Vief, G., Hakim-Larson, J., DeVoe, M., & Schoeberlein, S. (1989). Emotions and self-regulation: A life span view.Human Development, 32, 279-299.

Labouvie-Vief, G., Chiodo, L. M., Goguen, L. A., & Diehl, M. (1995). Representations of self across the life span. Psychology & Aging, 10, 404-415.

Labouvie-Vief, G. (2005). Self-with-other representations and the organization of the self. Journal of Research in Personality, 39, 185-205.

Leahy, R. L., & Eiter, M. (1980). Moral judgment and the development of real and ideal androgynous self-image during adolescence and young adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 16, 362-370.

Lewis, M. (1979). The self as a developmental concept. Human Development, 22, 416-419.

Lewis, M. (1991). Self-conscious emotions and the development of self. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 39(Suppl), 45-73.

Lewis, M. D. (1997). Personality self-organization: Cascading constraints on cognition-emotion interaction Dynamics and indeterminism in developmental and social processes. (pp. 193-216). Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Loevinger, J., & Knoll, E. (1983). Personality: Stages, traits, and the self. Annual Review of Psychology, 34, 195-222.

Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. (1987). Leading workers to lead themselves: The external leadership of self-managing work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 106-128.

Markus, H., & Sentis, K. (1982). The self in social information processing. In J. Suls (Ed.), Psychological perspectives on the self(Vol. 1, pp. 41-70). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1987). Possible selves: The interface between motivation and the self-concept. In K. Yardley & T. Honess (Eds.), Self and identity: Psychosocial perspectives. (pp. 157-172). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.

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development | decision making | ethics | leadership | reflective judgment | self understanding | testing


Traditional vs. developmental assessment

Amir, R., Frankl, D. R., & Tamir, R. (1987). Justifications of answers to multiple choice items as a means for identifying misconceptions. In J. D. Novak (Ed.), Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Misconceptions and Educational Strategies in Science and Mathematics (Vol. Vol. I, pp. 15-26). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.

Selected funders

IES (US Department of Education)

The Spencer Foundation


Dr. Sharon Solloway

The Simpson Foundation

The Leopold Foundation

Donor list

Selected clients

Glastonbury School District, CT

The Ross School

Rainbow Community School

The Study School

Long Trail School

The US Naval Academy

The City of Edmonton, Alberta

The US Federal Government

Advisory Board

Antonio Battro, MD, Ph.D., One Laptop Per Child

Marc Schwartz, Ph.D. and former high school teacher, University of Texas at Arlington

Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, Ed.D., University of Southern California

Willis Overton, Ph.D., Temple University, Emeritus