Lectical Levels in context

A comparison of developmental levels

The table below shows how the levels of different developmental systems are aligned.

We have not included sentence completion tests here because research has shown that these assessments are not measures of the same dimension tapped by instruments that emerged from the Piagetian tradition.

Scroll down for video and table references.

Lectical Level Skill Levels
(Kitchener & King
14 cross-paradigmatic
13 principled mappings paradigmatic Stage 6 Stages 6 & 7
12 single principles metasystematic Stage 5 Stage 5 Stage 5 5th order consciousness 6-7
11 abstract systems systematic Stage 4 Stage 4 Stage 4 4th order consciousness 3-5
10 abstract mappings formal Stage 3 Stage 3 Stage 3 3th order consciousness 1-2
9 single abstractions abstract Stage 2 Stage 2 Stage 2 2nd order consciousness
8 representational systems concrete Stage 1 Stage 1 Stage 1 1st order consciousness
7 representational mappings primary
6 single representations operational
5 sensorimotor systems sentential
4 sensorimotor mappings nominal
3 single sensorimotor schemes sensory-motor
2 reflexive systems circular densory-motor
1 Reflexive mappings sensory or motor
0 Single reflexes calculatory


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Selected funders

IES (US Department of Education)

The Spencer Foundation


Dr. Sharon Solloway

The Simpson Foundation

The Leopold Foundation

Donor list

Selected clients

Glastonbury School District, CT

The Ross School

Rainbow Community School

The Study School

Long Trail School

The US Naval Academy

The City of Edmonton, Alberta

The US Federal Government

Advisory Board

Antonio Battro, MD, Ph.D., One Laptop Per Child

Marc Schwartz, Ph.D. and former high school teacher, University of Texas at Arlington

Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, Ed.D., University of Southern California

Willis Overton, Ph.D., Temple University, Emeritus