About the LRJA

Our ability to make reasoned decisions rests on a core skill set called reflective judgment. The LRJA is a family of assessments designed to measure and strengthen reflective judgment—the backbone of well-reasoned, thoughtful action.

Reflective judgment skills are particularly important in today's complex and rapidly changing world—for everything from deciding on a cell phone plan to voting. 

The LRJA asks test-takers to respond to a real-life dilemma—one without a single clear answer. Test takers are prompted to explore questions about:

  • finding, creating, and evaluating information and evidence,
  • perspectives, persuasion, and conflict resolution,
  • when and if it's possible to be certain,
  • the nature of facts,
  • what truth is and how to find it, and 
  • the nature of reality.

All forms of the LRJA receive Lectical Scores. Some are also scored for argumentation quality. LRJA reports, like all Lectical Assessment reports, include rich feedback and customized learning suggestions—none of which involve memorizing. 

Grades 4–12

Reflective judgment skills begin developing in infancy during early interactions with our physical and social worlds. They are best developed through reflective practices that are integrated into curricula and everyday life. 

The LRJA will soon be available, FREE of charge, to individual teachers and their students.

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College & university

Performance on the LRJA is a good predictor of success in college, and the human-vetted version is suitable for use in admissions decisions. 

The electronically scored version of the LRJA is suited to formative classroom use, and is often used in program evaluations. 

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Unfortunately, the majority of students have too few opportunities to exercise reflective judgment skills in today's K-12 classrooms. That's why we're making the LRJA directly available—by subscription—to parents everywhere in the English-speaking world. (Announcement coming soon!)




Skill CLAS Demo Grades 4-12 tests Adult tests Description
Seeking & evaluating evidence X X X the information, facts, testimony, and opinions that relate to a particular issue, and how these are evaluated before being used to form a conclusion
Developing evidence   X X the process of goal setting, information gathering, interpretation, and review
Deliberation X X X reasoning about the nature of thinking and deciding
Working with perspectives   X X awareness of other perspectives and how they can be leveraged to build knowledge
Persuasion   X   use of evidence, argument, and induction (psychology) to persuade others
Conflict resolution   X X awareness and use of discussion, negotiation, compromise, and collaboration to address conflict
Complexity   X X awareness of complexity as an issue, the nature of complexity, and the skills required to make sound and timely decisions under complexity
Truth & certainty   X X awareness of uncertainty, ability to distinguish between subjective & objective knowledge, and skills for coping with this uncertainty


Selected funders

IES (US Department of Education)

The Spencer Foundation


Dr. Sharon Solloway

The Simpson Foundation

The Leopold Foundation

Donor list

Selected clients

Glastonbury School District, CT

The Ross School

Rainbow Community School

The Study School

Long Trail School

The US Naval Academy

The City of Edmonton, Alberta

The US Federal Government

Advisory Board

Kurt Fischer, Ph.D. Harvard Graduate School of Education, Emeritus

Antonio Battro, MD, Ph.D., One Laptop Per Child

Marc Schwartz, Ph.D. and former high school teacher, University of Texas at Arlington

Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, Ed.D., University of Southern California

Willis Overton, Ph.D., Temple University, Emeritus